Of the punishment of sin
As to the punishment of original sin on those who, it may be thought, not to have added to it any actual sin and transgression, as infants, dying in infancy, I shall be silent; at least, say little. Not that I doubt of the right of justice to punish that sin on Adam's descendants, who have not actually sinned after the similitude of his transgression; since corporal death, a part of the punishment threatened, does pass upon them, and they are born with a want of original righteousness, a considerable branch of moral death; but if divine justice proceeds further, and inflicts eternal death, or everlasting punishment on them, I think it must be in a more mild and gentle manner than what is inflicted on those who have also been guilty of actual sins and transgressions; seeing, as there are degrees of punishment respecting them, as they are greater or lesser, #Mt 11:20-24 so there must be a difference of the punishment of original sin, separately considered; and of that attended with numerous actual transgressions. Many unguarded expressions have been dropped, concerning the punishment of such infants, as before mentioned, which are not at all to the credit of truth. Many conjectures have been made, and schemes formed, that are scarcely worth mentioning. Some have fancied that all such infants are lost; which seems to have something in it shocking, especially to parents. And others think they are all saved, through the electing grace of God, the redeeming blood of Christ, and the regeneration of the blessed Spirit; to which I am much rather inclined, than to the former: but think it best to leave it among the secret things that belong to God; who, we may be assured, cannot do an unjust thing, nor do any injury to any of his creatures: and who, as he is just in his nature, he is merciful in Christ.
In this article I have nothing to do with men as elect or non-elect; but as they are all the fallen race of Adam. The elect, as considered in Christ, the Head of the covenant of grace, are not subject, or liable, to any punishment, here or hereafter; "There is no condemnation, to them that are in Christ Jesus": their afflictions are not punishments for sin; nor is corporal death inflicted on them as a penal evil; nor will any curse befall them in a future state. But my concern is with men considered in Adam, as the head of the covenant of works, and the representative of all mankind; as they sinned and fell in him, and were involved in the guilt of his sin; and as they are actual transgressors in themselves; and as they ard chargeable with sin, according to the declaration, sanction, and tenor of the law; and considered as such, all mankind descending from Adam by ordinary generation, without any exception and distinction, are subject, obnoxious, and liable to punishment.
Punishment of sin, original and actual, may be considered as temporal and eternal; both in this life, and that which is to come. There is an everlasting punishment into which the wicked go after death; and there is a punishment in this life; "Wherefore should a living man complain, a man for the punishment of his sin?" #La 3:37 that is, for punishment in the present state.
1a. Punishment inward, or of the soul, lies,
"come short", or "are deprived of the glory of God"; that
is, of the image of God, in which his glory on man lay; one
principal part of which image was righteousness and
holiness. This man is stripped of, and is become unrighteous;
1a2. In a loss of the freedom of will, and of power to do good.
Man has not lost the natural liberty of his will to things
natural; but the moral liberty of his will to things moral;
which is evil; and that liberty is no other than bondage.
Man's free will is a slave to his lusts; he is a homeborn
slave, #Jer 2:14. Man has lost his power to do good; how to
perform that he knows not; through the weakness of the
requires; he cannot of himself think anything; and, without
the grace of God, cannot do anything as it ought to be
done; for he has no principle of life and motion in him to
it; he is dead in trespasses and sins.
1a3. In a loss of knowledge of divine things; his understanding
is darkened with respect to them; he is darkness itself; he
has lost his knowledge by sinning, instead of gaining more;
"There is none that understandeth, and seeks after God, and
to do good they have no knowledge; they know not, nor will
they understand. And many, through an habitual course of
sinning, become hardened; and God gives them up to a
judicial blindness and hardness of heart; to vile
convenient; to strong delusions, to believe a lie; and to
their own hearts lusts; and nothing worse can well befall
men than that.
out of paradise, and was deprived of communion with God
through the creatures; and all his sons are alienated from a
life of fellowship with him: their sins separate between God
and them; and, indeed, what communion can there be between
throne of iniquity, or where iniquity reigns, can have no
fellowship with God, who commit sin as though they had a law
to do it.
despair. The sinful soul of man is hopeless and helpless:
men live without real hope of future happiness, and without
God in the world; if their consciences are not lulled
asleep, they are continually accusing of sin; the arrows of
up their spirits; and his terrors set themselves in array
against them: having no view of pardon, peace, and
righteousness by another, there is nothing but a fearful
looking for of judgment; indignation and wrath, tribulation
and to which he is liable; unless the grace of God prevents.
1b. Outward punishments or of the body, or what relate to the outward things of life, are as follow:
1b1. Loss of immortality of the body. Adam's body was gifted with
immortality; but sinning, he was stripped of it and became
mortal, and so all his posterity are; which arises not from
the constitution of their nature, and the appointment of
mortal, "because of sin", #Ro 8:10 and it is liable, on the
same account, to various diseases; they all have their
foundation in and their original from sin; God threatens men
for it with a consumption, and with a fever, and with an
with many others, are inflicted on account of it. To one
cured of a disease Christ said; "Go home, sin no more, lest
a worse thing come upon thee", #Joh 5:14 signifying, that
his former disease came upon him for sin, and a worse would,
1b2. Labour of body, with toil, fatigue, and weariness, is
another penal effect of sin. Though Adam dressed the garden
of Eden, in his state of innocence, it was done without toil
for his sake, and brought forth thorns and thistles; and he
was doomed to labour in it, to dig in it, to weed and purge
it, to cultivate and manure it; and thereby to get and eat
his bread in sorrow, and in the sweat of his brow. And this
labour" as the sparks fly upward; so the word may be
rendered, #Job 5:7. The earth remains in such a state as
requires cultivation, ploughing, sowing, weeding, &c. in
which men must work with their own hands, in a toilsome and
themselves and families, and have wherewith to give to
others. And it may be observed, that the punishment
pronounced on Eve, that her conception and sorrow should be
multiplied; and that in sorrow she should bring forth
that of all the creatures, none bring forth their young in
so much pain as women; and hence some of the greatest
calamities and distresses in life, are described and
expressed by the pains of a woman in travail; see
1b3. Loss of dominion over the creatures is another sort of
punishment of sin. Adam had a grant of dominion over all the
creatures, and these were in subjection to him. But by sin
of fearing and serving him, rebel against him, and are
hurtful to him; he is afraid of coming near them, unless God
makes peace with them for him, and preserves him from them;
yea, the noisome beast is one of God's sore judgments with
1b4. The many distresses in person, in family, and in estate, are
the penal effects of sin; the curses of the law, for the
transgressions of it, come upon men, and on what they have;
the fruit of their body, and of their land; in the increase
of their kine and flocks of sheep; when these are affected,
and there is a failure in them, it is for sin, #De 28:16,20.
punishments of sin; as the drowning of the old world; the
burning of Sodom and Gomorrah; the captivities of the Jews;
the destruction of other nations and cities; the
devastations made by wars, famines, pestilences,
1b6. Last of all, as to outward temporal punishment, corporal
death, which is the disunion of soul and body, is the just
"wages" and demerit of sin; it was threatened in case of it,
upon all his posterity; and sin is the cause of it; "The
sting of death is sin"; sin gives it its destructive power
and force, and makes it a penal evil.
2. Secondly, There is an eternal punishment of sin, or the punishment of it in the world to come for ever. This takes place in part on wicked men as soon as soul and body are separated; their souls, during their separate state, until the resurrection, are in a state of punishment; the wicked rich man when he died, "in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torment", #Lu 16:22,23. At the resurrection the bodies of wicked men will come forth from their graves, to the resurrection of damnation; when soul and body will be destroyed in hell, and punished with an everlasting destruction from the presence of God, #Joh 5:29 Mt 10:28 2Th 1:9. This punishment will be both of loss and sense; it will lie in an eternal separation from God, from any enjoyment of his favour, and fellowship with him; but such will have their eternal abode with devils and damned spirits; and in an everlasting sense of the wrath of God, which will be poured forth like fire; and both are expressed in that sentence, "Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire", #Mt 25:41. Now this punishment is eternal; it is called everlasting punishment, everlasting destruction: everlasting fire; fire that is not quenched; the smoke of it ascends for ever and ever, #Mt 25:41,46 2Th 1:9 Mr 9:42 #Re 14:11. The reasons of the eternal duration of punishment for sin, are, because it is committed against an infinite and eternal Being, and is objectively infinite, and requires infinite satisfaction, which a finite creature cannot give; and this not being given, punishment must proceed on "ad infinitum", and so be eternal. Could satisfaction be made, punishment would cease; but no satisfaction can be made in hell by the sufferings of finite creatures; which, therefore, must be continued until the uttermost farthing is paid, or full satisfaction made, which can never be done. Besides, the wicked in the future state, will always continue sinning, and be more and more outrageous and desperate in their blasphemy and hatred of God; and, therefore, as they will sin continually, it will be just that they be punished continually; to which may be added, that there will be no repentance for sin there, no pardon of it, no change of state; "He that is unjust, let him be unjust still; and he that is filthy, let him be filthy still", #Re 22:11. But of this more hereafter, towards the close of this work.
Now this punishment of sin, both temporal and eternal, is due to all the fallen race of Adam; to all descending from him by ordinary generation, without any distinction or exception, as they are considered in him, and transgressors of the righteous law of God. All equally sinned in him, and died in him; all are made sinners by the imputation of his disobedience to them; the guilt of which sin, and of their own actual transgressions, they are chargeable with: the whole world is become guilty before God; and which guilt in his sight, and as pronounced by him according to his law, is an obligation to punishment: all the transgressors of the law, as all men are, stand cursed and condemned by it; nay, "by the offence of one", of the one man Adam, "judgment came upon all men to condemnation"; so that all Adam's posterity are under a sentence of condemnation; and as considered in him, and in themselves, are subject, exposed, and liable to the above punishment; being all by nature children of wrath, one as well as another, deserving of it, and so liable to it; that is, to punishment: the reason why this punishment, to which all are subject, is not inflicted on some, is because of the suretyship engagements of Christ for them, and his performance of those engagements; whereby he endured all that wrath and punishment due to their sins in their room and stead; and so delivered them from it, which otherwise they were exposed unto; the dawn of which distinguishing grace the next part of this work will open and display.