Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in 2Ch 22:11 She was the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada 2Ch 22:11




The special and significant name (not merely an appellative title such as Lord [adonai]) by which God revealed himself to the ancient Hebrews Ex 6:2,3 This name, the Tetragrammaton of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never pronounced except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when he entered into the most holy place. Whenever this name occurred in the sacred books they pronounced it, as they still do, "Adonai" (i.e., Lord), thus using another word in its stead. The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points appropriate to this word. This Jewish practice was founded on a false interpretation of Le 24:16 The meaning of the word appears from Ex 3:14 to be "the unchanging, eternal, self-existent God, "the "I am that I am, "a convenant-keeping God. (Comp.) Mal 3:6 Ho 12:5 Re 1:4,8 The Hebrew name "Jehovah" is generally translated in the Authorized Version (and the Revised Version has not departed from this rule) by the word LORD printed in small capitals, to distinguish it from the rendering of the Hebrew _Adonai_ and the Greek _Kurios_, which are also rendered Lord, but printed in the usual type. The Hebrew word is translated "Jehovah" only in Ex 6:3 Ps 83:18 Isa 12:2 26:4 and in the compound names mentioned below. It is worthy of notice that this name is never used in the LXX., the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament. It is found, however, on the "Moabite stone" (q.v.), and consequently it must have been in the days of Mesba so commonly pronounced by the Hebrews as to be familiar to their heathen neighbours.




Jehovah will see; i.e., will provide, the name given by Abraham to the scene of his offering up the ram which was caught in the thicket on Mount Moriah. The expression used in Ge 22:14 "in the mount of the Lord it shall be seen, "has been regarded as equivalent to the saying, "Man's extremity is God's opportunity."




Jehovah my banner, the title given by Moses to the altar which he erected on the hill on the top of which he stood with uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the Amalekites Ex 17:15




Jehovah send peace, the name which Gideon gave to the altar he erected on the spot at Ophrah where the angel appeared to him Jud 6:24




Jehovah is there, the symbolical title given by Ezekiel to Jerusalem, which was seen by him in vision Eze 48:35 It was a type of the gospel Church.




Jehovah our rightousness, rendered in the Authorized Version, "The LORD our righteousness, "a title given to the Messiah Jer 23:6 marg., and also to Jerusalem Jer 33:16 marg.





1. The son of Obed-edom 1Ch 26:4 one of the Levite porters.

2. The son of Shomer, one of the two conspirators who put king Jehoash to death in Millo in Jerusalem 2Ki 12:21

3. 2Ch 17:18




Jehovah-justified, the son of the high priest Seraiah at the time of the Babylonian exile 1Ch 6:14,15 He was carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon. He was the father of Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with Zerubbabel.




Jehovah is he.

1. The son of Obed, and father of Azariah 1Ch 2:38

2. One of the Benjamite slingers that joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:3

3. The son of Hanani, a prophet of Judah 1Ki 16:1,7 2Ch 19:2 20:34 who pronounced the sentence of God against Baasha, the king of Israel.

4. King of Israel, the son of Jehoshaphat 2Ki 9:2 and grandson of Nimshi. The story of his exaltation to the throne is deeply interesting. During the progress of a war against the Syrians, who were becoming more and more troublesome to Israel, in a battle at Ramoth-gilead Jehoram, the king of Israel, had been wounded; and leaving his army there, had returned to Jezreel, whither his ally, Ahaziah, king of Judah, had also gone on a visit of sympathy with him 2Ki 8:28,29 The commanders, being left in charge of the conduct of the war, met in council; and while engaged in their deliberations, a messenger from Elisha appeared in the camp, and taking Jehu from the council, led him into a secret chamber, and there anointed him king over Israel, and immediately retired and disappeared 2Ki 9:5,6 On being interrogated by his companions as to the object of this mysterious visitor, he informed them of what had been done, when immediately, with the utmost enthusiasm, they blew their trumpets and proclaimed him king 2Ki 9:11-14 He then with a chosen band set forth with all speed to Jezreel, where, with his own hand, he slew Jehoram, shooting him through the heart with an arrow 2Ki 9:24 The king of Judah, when trying to escape, was fatally wounded by one of Jehu's soldiers at Beth-gan. On entering the city, Jehu commanded the eunchs of the royal palace to cast down Jezebel into the street, where her mangled body was trodden under foot by the horses. Jehu was now master of Jezreel, whence he communicated with the persons in authority in Samaria the capital, commanding them to appear before him on the morrow with the heads of all the royal princes of Samaria. Accordingly on the morrow seventy heads were piled up in two heaps at his gate. At "the shearing-house" 2Ki 10:12-14 other forty-two connected with the house of Ahab were put to death 2Ki 10:14 As Jehu rode on toward Samaria, he met Jehonadab (q.v.), whom he took into his chariot, and they entered the capital together. By a cunning stratagem he cut off all the worshippers of Baal found in Samaria 2Ki 10:19-25 and destroyed the temple of the idol 2Ki 10:27 Notwithstanding all this apparent zeal for the worship of Jehovah, Jehu yet tolerated the worship of the golden calves at Dan and Bethel. For this the divine displeasure rested upon him, and his kingdom suffered disaster in war with the Syrians 2Ki 10:29-33 He died after a reign of twenty-eight years (B.C. 884-856) and was buried in Samaria 2Ki 10:34-36 "He was one of those decisive, terrible, and ambitious, yet prudent, calculating, and passionless men whom God from time to time raises up to change the fate of empires and execute his judgments on the earth." He was the first Jewish king who came in contact with the Assyrian power in the time of Shalmaneser II.




Able, the son of Shelemiah. He is also called Jucal Jer 38:1 He was one of the two persons whom Zedekiah sent to request the prophet Jeremiah to pray for the kingdom Jer 37:3 during the time of its final siege by Nebuchadnezzar. He was accompanied by Zephaniah (q.v.).




A Jew, son of Nethaniah. He was sent by the princes to invite Baruch to read Jeremiah's roll to them Jer 36:14,21




Snatched away by God.

1. A descendant of Benjamin 1Ch 9:35 8:29

2. One of the Levites who took part in praising God on the removal of the ark to Jerusalem 1Ch 16:5

3. 2Ch 29:13 A Levite of the sons of Asaph.

4. 2Ch 26:11 A scribe.

5. 1Ch 5:7 A Reubenite chief.

6. One of the chief Levites, who made an offering for the restoration of the Passover by Josiah 2Ch 35:9

7. Ezr 8:13

8. Ezr 10:43




Dove, the eldest of Job's three daughters born after his time of trial Job 42:14




Whom God sets free, or the breaker through, a "mighty man of valour" who delivered Israel from the oppression of the Ammonites Jud 11:1-33 and judged Israel six years Jud 12:7 He has been described as "a wild, daring, Gilead mountaineer, a sort of warrior Elijah." After forty-five years of comparative quiet Israel again apostatized, and in "process of time the children of Ammon made war against Israel" Jud 11:5 In their distress the elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob, to which he had fled when driven out wrongfully by his brothers from his father's inheritance Jud 11:2 and the people made him their head and captain. The "elders of Gilead" in their extremity summoned him to their aid, and he at once undertook the conduct of the war against Ammon. Twice he sent an embassy to the king of Ammon, but in vain. War was inevitable. The people obeyed his summons, and "the spirit of the Lord came upon him." Before engaging in war he vowed that if successful he would offer as a "burnt-offering" whatever would come out of the door of his house first to meet him on his return. The defeat of the Ammonites was complete. "He smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards [Heb. 'Abel Keramim], with a very great slaughter" Jud 11:33 The men of Ephraim regarded themselves as insulted in not having been called by Jephthah to go with him to war against Ammon. This led to a war between the men of Gilead and Ephraim Jud 12:4 in which many of the Ephraimites perished.  "Then died Jephthah the Gileadite, and was buried in one of the cities of Gilead" Jud 12:7




Jephthah's Vow


Jud 11:30,31 After a crushing defeat of the Ammonites, Jephthah returned to his own house, and the first to welcome him was his own daughter. This was a terrible blow to the victor, and in his despair he cried out, "Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low. I have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and cannot go back." With singular nobleness of spirit she answered, "Do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth." She only asked two months to bewail her maidenhood with her companions upon the mountains. She utters no reproach against her father's rashness, and is content to yield her life since her father has returned a conqueror. But was it so? Did Jephthah offer up his daughter as a "burnt-offering"? This question has been much debated, and there are many able commentators who argue that such a sacrifice was actually offered. We are constrained, however, by a consideration of Jephthah's known piety as a true worshipper of Jehovah, his evident acquaintance with the law of Moses, to which such sacrifices were abhorrent Le 18:21 20:2-5 De 12:31 and the place he holds in the roll of the heroes of the faith in the Epistle to the Hebrews He 11:32 to conclude that she was only doomed to a life of perpetual celibacy.




Nimble, or a beholder.

1. The father of Caleb, who was Joshua's companion in exploring Canaan Nu 13:6 a Kenezite Jos 14:14

2. One of the descendants of Asher 1Ch 7:38




Loving God.

1. The son of Hezron, the brother of Caleb 1Ch 2:9,25,26 etc.

2. The son of Kish, a Levite 1Ch 24:29

3. Son of Hammelech Jer 36:26




Raised up or appointed by Jehovah.

1. A Gadite who joined David in the wilderness 1Ch 12:10

2. A Gadite warrior 1Ch 12:13

3. A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:4

4. One of the chiefs of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan 1Ch 5:24

5. The father of Hamutal 2Ki 23:31 the wife of Josiah.

6. One of the "greater prophets" of the Old Testament, son of Hilkiah (q.v.), a priest of Anathoth Jer 1:1 32:6 He was called to the prophetical office when still young Jer 1:6 in the thirteenth year of Josiah (B.C. 628) He left his native place, and went to reside in Jerusalem, where he greatly assisted Josiah in his work of reformation 2Ki 23:1-25 The death of this pious king was bewailed by the prophet as a national calamity 2Ch 35:25 During the three years of the reign of Jehoahaz we find no reference to Jeremiah, but in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim the enmity of the people against him broke out in bitter persecution, and he was placed apparently under restraint Jer 36:5 In the fourth year of Jehoiakim he was commanded to write the predictions given to him, and to read them to the people on the fast-day. This was done by Baruch his servant in his stead, and produced much public excitement. The roll was read to the king. In his recklessness he seized the roll, and cut it to pieces, and cast it into the fire, and ordered both Baruch and Jeremiah to be apprehended. Jeremiah procured another roll, and wrote in it the words of the roll the king had destroyed, and "many like words" besides Jer 36:32 He remained in Jerusalem, uttering from time to time his words of warning, but without effect. He was there when Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city Jer 37:4,5 B.C. 589. The rumour of the approach of the Egyptians to aid the Jews in this crisis induced the Chaldeans to withdraw and return to their own land. This, however, was only for a time. The prophet, in answer to his prayer, received a message from God announcing that the Chaldeans would come again and take the city, and burn it with fire Jer 37:7,8 The princes, in their anger at such a message by Jeremiah, cast him into prison Jer 37:15-38:13 He was still in confinement when the city was taken (B.C. 588) The Chaldeans released him, and showed him great kindness, allowing him to choose the place of his residence. He accordingly went to Mizpah with Gedaliah, who had been made governor of Judea. Johanan succeeded Gedaliah, and refusing to listen to Jeremiah's counsels, went down into Egypt, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with him Jer 43:6 There probably the prophet spent the remainder of his life, in vain seeking still to turn the people to the Lord, from whom they had so long revolted Jer 44:1-30. He lived till the reign of Evil-Merodach, son of Nebuchadnezzar, and must have been about ninety years of age at his death. We have no authentic record of his death. He may have died at Tahpanhes, or, according to a tradition, may have gone to Babylon with the army of Nebuchadnezzar; but of this there is nothing certain.


Jeremiah, Book of


Consists of twenty-three separate and independent sections, arranged in five books.

1. The introduction, ch. 1

2. Reproofs of the sins of the Jews, consisting of seven sections,

a. ch. 2

b. ch. 3-6

c. ch. 7-10

d. ch. 11-13

e. ch. 14-17:18.

f. ch. 17:19-ch. 20

g. ch. 21-24

3. A general review of all nations, in two sections,

a. ch. 46-49

b. ch. 25 with an historical appendix of three sections,

1. ch. 26

2. ch. 27

3. ch. 28,29

4. Two sections picturing the hopes of better times,

a. ch. 30,31

b. ch. 32,33 to which is added an historical appendix in three sections,

1. ch. 34:1-7.

2. ch. 34:8-22.

3. ch. 35

5. The conclusion, in two sections,

a. ch. 36

b. ch. 45


In Egypt, after an interval, Jeremiah is supposed to have added three sections, viz., ch. 37-39 40-43 and 44. The principal Messianic prophecies are found in Jer 23:1-8 31:31-40 33:14-26 Jeremiah's prophecies are noted for the frequent repetitions found in them of the same words and phrases and imagery. They cover the period of about 30 years. They are not recorded in the order of time. When and under what circumstances this book assumed its present form we know not. The LXX. Version of this book is, in its arrangement and in other particulars, singularly at variance with the original. The LXX.  omits Jer 10:6-8 27:19-22 29:16-20 33:14-26 39:4-13 52:2,3,15,28-30 etc. About 2,700 words in all of the original are omitted. These omissions, etc., are capricious and arbitrary, and render the version unreliable.




Place of fragrance, a fenced city in the midst of a vast grove of palm trees, in the plain of Jordan, over against the place where that river was crossed by the Israelites Jos 3:16 Its site was near the 'Ain es-Sultan, Elisha's Fountain 2Ki 2:19-22 about 5 miles west of Jordan. It was the most important city in the Jordan valley Nu 22:1 Nu 34:15 and the strongest fortress in all the land of Canaan. It was the key to Western Palestine. This city was taken in a very remarkable manner by the Israelites Jos 6:1ff. God gave it into their hands. The city was "accursed" (Heb. herem, "devoted" to Jehovah), and accordingly Jos 6:17 comp.Le 27:28,29 De 13:16 all the inhabitants and all the spoil of the city were to be destroyed, "only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron" were reserved and "put into the treasury of the house of Jehovah" Jos 6:24 comp. Nu 31:22,23,50-54 Only Rahab "and her father's household, and all that she had, "were preserved from destruction, according to the promise of the spies Jos 2:14 In one of the Amarna tablets Adoni-zedec (q.v.) writes to the king of Egypt informing him that the 'Abiri (Hebrews) had prevailed, and had taken the fortress of Jericho, and were plundering "all the king's lands." It would seem that the Egyptian troops had before this been withdrawn from Palestine. This city was given to the tribe of Benjamin Jos 18:21 and it was inhabited in the time of the Judges Jud 3:13 2Sa 10:5 It is not again mentioned till the time of David 2Sa 10:5 "Children of Jericho" were among the captives who returned under Zerubbabel Ezr 2:34 Ne 7:36 Hiel (q.v.) the Bethelite attempted to make it once more a fortified city 1Ki 16:34 Between the beginning and the end of his undertaking all his children were cut off. In New Testament times Jericho stood some distance to the south-east of the ancient one, and near the opening of the valley of Achor. It was a rich and flourishing town, having a considerable trade, and celebrated for the palm trees which adorned the plain around. It was visited by our Lord on his last journey to Jerusalem. Here he gave sight to two blind men Mt 20:29-34 Mr 10:46-52 and brought salvation to the house of Zacchaeus the publican Lu 19:2-10 The poor hamlet of er-Riha, the representative of modern Jericho, is situated some two miles farther to the east. It is in a ruinous condition, having been destroyed by the Turks in 1840 "The soil of the plain, "about the middle of which the ancient city stood, "is unsurpassed in fertility; there is abundance of water for irrigation, and many of the old aqueducts are almost perfect; yet nearly the whole plain is waste and desolate. The climate of Jericho is exceedingly hot and unhealthy. This is accounted for by the depression of the plain, which is about 1,200 feet below the level of the sea." There were three different Jerichos, on three different sites, the Jericho of Joshua, the Jericho of Herod, and the Jericho of the Crusades. Er-Riha, the modern Jericho, dates from the time of the Crusades. Dr. Bliss has found in a hollow scooped out for some purpose or other near the foot of the biggest mound above the Sultan's Spring specimens of Amorite or pre-Israelitish pottery precisely identical with what he had discovered on the site of ancient Lachish. He also traced in this place for a short distance a mud brick wall in situ, which he supposes to be the very wall that fell before the trumpets of Joshua.  The wall is not far from the foot of the great precipice of Quarantania and its numerous caverns, and the spies of Joshua could easily have fled from the city and been speedily hidden in these fastnesses.





1. One of the sons of Bela 1Ch 7:7

2. 1Ch 24:30 a Merarite Levite.

3. A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:5

4. A Levitical musician under Heman his father 1Ch 25:4

5. 1Ch 27:19 ruler of Naphtali.

6. One of David's sons 2Ch 11:18

7. A Levite, one of the overseers of the temple offerings 2Ch 31:13 in the reign of Hezekiah.




Increase of the people.

1. The son of Nebat 1Ki 11:26-39 "an Ephrathite, "the first king of the ten tribes, over whom he reigned twenty-two years (B.C. 976-945 He was the son of a widow of Zereda, and while still young was promoted by Solomon to be chief superintendent of the "burnden", i.e., of the bands of forced labourers. Influenced by the words of the prophet Ahijah, he began to form conspiracies with the view of becoming king of the ten tribes; but these having been discovered, he fled to Egypt 1Ki 11:29-40 where he remained for a length of time under the protection of Shishak I. On the death of Solomon, the ten tribes, having revolted, sent to invite him to become their king. The conduct of Rehoboam favoured the designs of Jeroboam, and he was accordingly proclaimed "king of Israel" 1Ki 12:1-20 He rebuilt and fortified Shechem as the capital of his kingdom. He at once adopted means to perpetuate the division thus made between the two parts of the kingdom, and erected at Dan and Bethel, the two extremities of his kingdom, "golden calves, "which he set up as symbols of Jehovah, enjoining the people not any more to go up to worship at Jerusalem, but to bring their offerings to the shrines he had erected. Thus he became distinguished as the man "who made Israel to sin." This policy was followed by all the succeeding kings of Israel. While he was engaged in offering incense at Bethel, a prophet from Judah appeared before him with a warning message from the Lord. Attempting to arrest the prophet for his bold words of defiance, his hand was "dried up, " and the altar before which he stood was rent asunder. At his urgent entreaty his "hand was restored him again" 1Ki 13:1-6 9 comp. 2Ki 23:15 but the miracle made no abiding impression on him. His reign was one of constant war with the house of Judah. He died soon after his son Abijah 1Ki 14:1-20

2. Jeroboam II., the son and successor of Jehoash, and the fourteenth king of Israel, over which he ruled for forty-one years, B.C. 825-784 2Ki 14:23 He followed the example of the first Jeroboam in keeping up the worship of the golden calves 2Ki 14:24 His reign was contemporary with those of Amaziah 2Ki 14:23 and Uzziah 2Ki 15:1 kings of Judah. He was victorious over the Syrians 2Ki 13:4 14:26,27 and extended Israel to its former limits, from "the entering of Hamath to the sea of the plain" 2Ki 14:25 Am 6:14 His reign of forty-one years was the most prosperous that Israel had ever known as yet. With all this outward prosperity, however, iniquity widely prevailed in the land Am 2:6-8 4:1 6:6 Ho 4:12-14 The prophets Hosea Ho 1:1 Joe 3:16 Am 1:1,2 Amos Am 1:1 and Jonah 2Ki 14:25 lived during his reign. He died, and was buried with his ancestors 2Ki 14:29 He was succeeded by his son Zachariah (q.v.). His name occurs in Scripture only in 2Ki 13:13 2Ki 14:16,23,27,28,29 15:1,8 1Ch 5:17 Ho 1:1 Am 1:1 7:9,10,11 In all other passages it is Jeroboam the son of Nebat that is meant.




Cherished; who finds mercy.

1. Father of Elkanah, and grandfather of the prophet Samuel 1Sa 1:1

2. The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan 1Ch 27:22

3. 1Ch 12:7 a Benjamite.

4. 2Ch 23:1 one whose son assisted in placing Joash on the throne.

5. 1Ch 9:8 a Benjamite.

6. 1Ch 9:12 a priest, perhaps the same as in Ne 11:12




Contender with Baal; or, let Baal plead, a surname of Gideon; a name given to him because he destroyed the altar of Baal Jud 6:32 7:1 8:29 1Sa 12:11




Contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon 2Sa 11:21




Founded by God, a "desert" on the ascent from the valley of the Dead Sea towards Jerusalem. It lay beyond the wilderness of Tekoa, in the direction of Engedi 2Ch 20:16,20 It corresponds with the tract of country now called el-Hasasah.




Called also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the "city of God, "the "holy city; " by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning "the holy; "once "the city of Judah" 2Ch 25:28 This name is in the original in the dual form, and means "possession of peace, "or "foundation of peace." The dual form probably refers to the two mountains on which it was built, viz., Zion and Moriah; or, as some suppose, to the two parts of the city, the "upper" and the "lower city." Jerusalem is a "mountain city enthroned on a mountain fastness" (comp.) Ps 68:15,16 87:1 125:2 Ps 76:1,2 122:3 It stands on the edge of one of the highest table-lands in Palestine, and is surrounded on the south-eastern, the southern, and the western sides by deep and precipitous ravines. It is first mentioned in Scripture under the name Salem Ge 14:18 comp. Ps 76:2 When first mentioned under the name Jerusalem, Adonizedek was its king Jos 10:1 It is afterwards named among the cities of Benjamin Jud 19:10 1Ch 11:4 but in the time of David it was divided between Benjamin and Judah. After the death of Joshua the city was taken and set on fire by the men of Judah Jud 1:1-8 but the Jebusites were not wholly driven out of it. The city is not again mentioned till we are told that David brought the head of Goliath thither 1Sa 17:54 David afterwards led his forces against the Jebusites still residing within its walls, and drove them out, fixing his own dwelling on Zion, which he called "the city of David" 2Sa 5:5-9 1Ch 11:4-8 Here he built an altar to the Lord on the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite 2Sa 24:15-25 and thither he brought up the ark of the covenant and placed it in the new tabernacle which he had prepared for it. Jerusalem now became the capital of the kingdom. After the death of David, Solomon built the temple, a house for the name of the Lord, on Mount Moriah (B.C. 1010) He also greatly strengthened and adorned the city, and it became the great centre of all the civil and religious affairs of the nation De 12:5 comp. De 12:14 14:23 16:11-16 Ps 122:1ff. After the disruption of the kingdom on the accession to the throne of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom of the two tribes. It was subsequently often taken and retaken by the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and by the kings of Israel 2Ki 14:13,14 2Ki 18:15,16 23:33-35 24:14 2Ch 12:9 26:9 27:3,4 29:3 32:30 33:11 till finally, for the abounding iniquities of the nation, after a siege of three years, it was taken and utterly destroyed, its walls razed to the ground, and its temple and palaces consumed by fire, by Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon 2Ki 25:1ff. 2Ch 36:1ff. Jer 39:1ff. B.C. 588. The desolation of the city and the land was completed by the retreat of the principal Jews into Egypt Jer 41:1-43:7 and by the final carrying captive into Babylon of all that still remained in the land Jer 52:3 so that it was left without an inhabitant (B.C. 582) Compare the predictions, De 28:1ff. Le 26:14-39 But the streets and walls of Jerusalem were again to be built, in troublous times Da 9:16,19,25 after a captivity of seventy years. This restoration was begun B.C. 536 "in the first year of Cyrus" Ezr 1:2,3,5-11 The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah contain the history of the re-building of the city and temple, and the restoration of the kingdom of the Jews, consisting of a portion of all the tribes. The kingdom thus constituted was for two centuries under the dominion of Persia, till B.C. 331 and thereafter, for about a century and a half, under the rulers of the Greek empire in Asia, till B.C. 167 For a century the Jews maintained their independence under native rulers, the Asmonean princes. At the close of this period they fell under the rule of Herod and of members of his family, but practically under Rome, till the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, A.D. 70 The city was then laid in ruins.  The modern Jerusalem by-and-by began to be built over the immense beds of rubbish resulting from the overthrow of the ancient city; and whilst it occupies certainly the same site, there are no evidences that even the lines of its streets are now what they were in the ancient city. Till A.D. 131 the Jews who still lingered about Jerusalem quietly submitted to the Roman sway. But in that year the emperor (Hadrian), in order to hold them in subjection, rebuilt and fortified the city. The Jews, however, took possession of it, having risen under the leadership of one Bar-Chohaba (i.e., "the son of the star") in revolt against the Romans. Some four years afterwards (A.D.  135) however, they were driven out of it with great slaughter, and the city was again destroyed; and over its ruins was built a Roman city called Aelia Capitolina, a name which it retained till it fell under the dominion of the Muslims, when it was called el-Khuds, i.e., "the holy." In A.D. 326 Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine, made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with the view of discovering the places mentioned in the life of our Lord. She caused a church to be built on what was then supposed to be the place of the nativity at Bethlehem. Constantine, animated by her example, searched for the holy sepulchre, and built over the supposed site a magnificent church, which was completed and dedicated A.D. 335 He relaxed the laws against the Jews till this time in force, and permitted them once a year to visit the city and wail over the desolation of "the holy and beautiful house." In A.D. 614 the Persians, after defeating the Roman forces of the emperor Heraclius, took Jerusalem by storm, and retained it till A.D. 637 when it was taken by the Arabians under the Khalif Omar. It remained in their possession till it passed, in A.D. 960 under the dominion of the Fatimite khalifs of Egypt, and in A.D. 1073 under the Turcomans. In A.D. 1099 the crusader Godfrey of Bouillon took the city from the Moslems with great slaughter, and was elected king of Jerusalem. He converted the Mosque of Omar into a Christian cathedral. During the eighty-eight years which followed, many churches and convents were erected in the holy city. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was rebuilt during this period, and it alone remains to this day. In A.D.  1187 the sultan Saladin wrested the city from the Christians. From that time to the present day, with few intervals, Jerusalem has remained in the hands of the Moslems. It has, however, during that period been again and again taken and retaken, demolished in great part and rebuilt, no city in the world having passed through so many vicissitudes. In the year 1850 the Greek and Latin monks residing in Jerusalem had a fierce dispute about the guardianship of what are called the "holy places." In this dispute the emperor Nicholas of Russia sided with the Greeks, and Louis Napoleon, the emperor of the French, with the Latins. This led the Turkish authorities to settle the question in a way unsatisfactory to Russia. Out of this there sprang the Crimean War, which was protracted and sanguinary, but which had important consequences in the way of breaking down the barriers of Turkish exclusiveness. Modern Jerusalem "lies near the summit of a broad mountain-ridge, which extends without interruption from the plain of Esdraelon to a line drawn between the southern end of the Dead Sea and the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean." This high, uneven table-land is everywhere from 20 to 25 geographical miles in breadth. It was anciently known as the mountains of Ephraim and Judah. "Jerusalem is a city of contrasts, and differs widely from Damascus, not merely because it is a stone town in mountains, whilst the latter is a mud city in a plain, but because while in Damascus Moslem religion and Oriental custom are unmixed with any foreign element, in Jerusalem every form of religion, every nationality of East and West, is represented at one time." Jerusalem is first mentioned under that name in the Book of Joshua, and the Tell-el-Amarna collection of tablets includes six letters from its Amorite king to Egypt, recording the attack of the Abiri about B.C. 1480 The name is there spelt Uru-Salim ("city of peace"). Another monumental record in which the Holy City is named is that of Sennacherib's attack in B.C. 702 The "camp of the Assyrians" was still shown about A.D. 70 on the flat ground to the north-west, included in the new quarter of the city. The city of David included both the upper city and Millo, and was surrounded by a wall built by David and Solomon, who appear to have restored the original Jebusite fortifications. The name Zion (or Sion) appears to have been, like Ariel ("the hearth of God"), a poetical term for Jerusalem, but in the Greek age was more specially used of the Temple hill. The priests' quarter grew up on Ophel, south of the Temple, where also was Solomon's Palace outside the original city of David.  The walls of the city were extended by Jotham and Manasseh to include this suburb and the Temple 2Ch 27:3 33:14 Jerusalem is now a town of some 50,000 inhabitants, with ancient mediaeval walls, partly on the old lines, but extending less far to the south. The traditional sites, as a rule, were first shown in the 4th and later centuries A.D., and have no authority. The results of excavation have, however, settled most of the disputed questions, the limits of the Temple area, and the course of the old walls having been traced.




Possession, or possessed; i.e., "by a husband", the wife of Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham 2Ki 15:33




Deliverance of Jehovah.

1. A Kohathite Levite, the father of Joram, of the family of Eliezer 1Ch 26:25 called also Isshiah 1Ch 24:21

2. One of the sons of Jeduthum 1Ch 25:3,15

3. One of the three sons of Hananiah 1Ch 3:21

4. Son of Athaliah Ezr 8:7

5. A Levite of the family of Merari Ezr 8:19




A city of the kingdom of Israel 2Ch 13:19




Upright towards God, the head of the seventh division of Levitical musicians 1Ch 25:14




Seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of priests 1Ch 24:13




Uprightness, the first of the three sons of Caleb by Azubah 1Ch 2:18




The waste, probably some high waste land to the south of the Dead Sea Nu 21:20 23:28 1Sa 23:19,24 or rather not a proper name at all, but simply "the waste" or "wilderness, "the district on which the plateau of Ziph (q.v.) looks down.




1. Head of the ninth priestly order Ezr 2:36 called also Jeshuah 1Ch 24:11

2. A Levite appointed by Hezekiah to distribute offerings in the priestly cities 2Ch 31:15

3. Ezr 2:6 Ne 7:11

4. Ezr 2:40 Ne 7:43

5. The son of Jozadak, and high priest of the Jews under Zerubbabel Ne 7:7 12:1,7,10,26 called Joshua Hag 1:1,12 2:2,4 Zec 3:1,3,6,8,9

6. A Levite Ezr 8:33

7. The ruler of Mizpah Ne 3:19

8. A Levite who assisted in the reformation under Nehemiah Ne 8:7 9:4,5

9. Son of Kadmiel Ne 12:24

10. A city of Judah Ne 11:26

11. Ne 8:17 Joshua, the son of Nun.




A poetical name for the people of Israel, used in token of affection, meaning, "the dear upright people" De 32:15 33:5,26 Isa 44:2




Firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth Ru 4:17,22 Mt 1:5,6 Lu 3:32 He was the father of eight sons, the youngest of whom was David 1Sa 17:12 The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David Isa 11:1 and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah Isa 11:10 Re 5:5 Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem 1Sa 17:17,18,20 Ps 78:71 The last reference to him is of David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab 1Sa 22:3




1. Joshua, the son of Nun Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8 R.V., "Joshua".

2. A Jewish Christian surnamed Justus Col 4:11

3. Jesus, the proper, as Christ is the official, name of our Lord. To distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as "Jesus of Nazareth" Joh 18:7 and "Jesus the son of Joseph" Joh 6:42 This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was originally Hoshea Nu 13:8,16 but changed by Moses into Jehoshua Nu 13:16 1Ch 7:27 or Joshua. After the Exile it assumed the form Jeshua, whence the Greek form Jesus. It was given to our Lord to denote the object of his mission, to save Mt 1:21 The life of Jesus on earth may be divided into two great periods,

a. That of his private life, till he was about thirty years of age In the "fulness of time" he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign of the emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter Mt 1:1 Lu 3:23 comp. Joh 7:42 His birth was announced to the shepherds Lu 2:8-20 Wise men from the east came to Bethlehem to see him who was born "King of the Jews, "bringing gifts with them Mt 2:1-12 Herod's cruel jealousy led to Joseph's flight into Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus, where they tarried till the death of this king Mt 2:13-23 when they returned and settled in Nazareth, in Lower Galilee Mt 2:23 comp. Lu 4:16 Joh 1:46 etc. At the age of twelve years he went up to Jerusalem to the Passover with his parents. There, in the temple, "in the midst of the doctors, "all that heard him were "astonished at his understanding and answers" Lu 2:41-47 etc. Eighteen years pass, of which we have no record beyond this, that he returned to Nazareth and "increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man" Lu 2:52

b. that of his public life, which lasted about three years.  He entered on his public ministry when he was about thirty years of age. It is generally reckoned to have extended to about three years.  "Each of these years had peculiar features of its own.

1. The first year may be called the year of obscurity, both because the records of it which we possess are very scanty, and because he seems during it to have been only slowly emerging into public notice. It was spent for the most part in Judea.

2. The second year was the year of public favour, during which the country had become thoroughly aware of him; his activity was incessant, and his frame rang through the length and breadth of the land. It was almost wholly passed in Galilee.

3. The third was the year of opposition, when the public favour ebbed away. His enemies multiplied and assailed him with more and more pertinacity, and at last he fell a victim to their hatred. The first six months of this final year were passed in Galilee, and the last six in other parts of the land.", Stalker's Life of Jesus Christ, p. 45 The only reliable sources of information regarding the life of Christ on earth are the Gospels, which present in historical detail the words and the work of Christ in so many different aspects.






Surplus; excellence.

1. Father-in-law of Moses Ex 4:18 marg., called elsewhere Jethro (q.v.).

2. The oldest of Gideon's seventy sons Jud 8:20

3. The father of Amasa, David's general 1Ki 2:5,32 called Ithra 2Sa 17:25

4. 1Ch 7:38

5. 1Ch 2:32 one of Judah's posterity.

6. 1Ch 4:17




A peg, or a prince, one of the Edomitish kings of Mount Seir Ge 36:40




Suspended; high, a city on the borders of Dan Jos 19:42




His excellence, or gain, a prince or priest of Midian, who succeeded his father Reuel. Moses spent forty years after his exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro's flocks. While the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and soon after their victory over Amalek, Jethro came to meet Moses, bringing with him Zipporah and her two sons. They met at the "mount of God, "and "Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh" Ex 18:8 On the following day Jethro, observing the multiplicity of the duties devolving on Moses, advised him to appoint subordinate judges, rulers of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens, to decide smaller matters, leaving only the weightier matters to be referred to Moses, to be laid before the Lord. This advice Moses adopted Ex 18:1ff. He was also called Hobab (q.v.), which was probably his personal name, while Jethro was an official name.






An enclosure, one of the twelve sons of Ishmael Ge 25:15




Snatched away by God, a descendant of Zerah 1Ch 9:6





1. The oldest of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah Ge 36:5,14,18

2. A son of Bilhan, grandson of Benjamin 1Ch 7:10

3. A Levite, one of the sons of Shimei 1Ch 23:10,11

4. One of the three sons of Rehoboam 2Ch 11:19

5. 1Ch 8:39




The name derived from the patriarch Judah, at first given to one belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of Judah 2Ki 16:6 25:25 Jer 32:12 38:19 40:11 41:3 in contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten tribes, who were called Israelites. During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name, however, was extended to all the Hebrew nation without distinction Es 3:6,10 Da 3:8,12 Ezr 4:12 5:1,5 Originally this people were called Hebrews Ge 39:14 40:15 Ex 2:7 3:18 5:3 1Sa 4:6,9 etc., but after the Exile this name fell into disuse. But Paul was styled a Hebrew 2Co 11:22 Php 3:5 The history of the Jewish nation is interwoven with the history of Palestine and with the narratives of the lives of their rulers and chief men. They are now dispersed over all lands, and to this day remain a separate people, "without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image [R.V. 'pillar, 'marg. 'obelisk'],and without an ephod, and without teraphim" Ho 3:4 Till about the beginning of the present century they were everywhere greatly oppressed, and often cruelly persecuted; but their condition greatly improved, and they were admitted in most European countries to all the rights of free citizens. In 1860 the "Jewish disabilities" were removed, and they were admitted to a seat in the British Parliament. Their number in all is estimated at about six millions, about four millions being in Europe. The 20th century brought a renewed persecution far worst than any which had come before There are three names used in the New Testament to designate this people,

1. Jews, as regards their nationality, to distinguish them from Gentiles.

2. Hebrews, with regard to their language and education, to distinguish them from Hellenists, i.e., Jews who spoke the Greek language.

3. Israelites, as respects their sacred privileges as the chosen people of God. "To other races we owe the splendid inheritance of modern civilization and secular culture; but the religious education of mankind has been the gift of the Jew alone."




A woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice, the mother of Timothy Ac 16:1 2Ti 1:5 and Drusilla Ac 24:24 wife of Felix, and daughter of Herod Agrippa I.




Chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Zidonians, and the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel 1Ki 16:31 This was the "first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this case of a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her name on history as the representative of all that is designing, crafty, malicious, revengeful, and cruel. She is the first great instigator of persecution against the saints of God. Guided by no principle, restrained by no fear of either God or man, passionate in her attachment to her heathen worship, she spared no pains to maintain idolatry around her in all its splendour. Four hundred and fifty prophets ministered under her care to Baal, besides four hundred prophets of the groves [R.V., 'prophets of the Asherah'],which ate at her table 1Ki 18:19 The idolatry, too, was of the most debased and sensual kind." Her conduct was in many respects very disastrous to the kingdom both of Israel and Judah 1Ki 21:1-29 At length she came to an untimely end. As Jehu rode into the gates of Jezreel, she looked out at the window of the palace, and said, "Had Zimri peace, who slew his master?" He looked up and called to her chamberlains, who instantly threw her from the window, so that she was dashed in pieces on the street, and his horses trod her under their feet. She was immediately consumed by the dogs of the street 2Ki 9:7-37 according to the word of Elijah the Tishbite 1Ki 21:19 Her name afterwards came to be used as the synonym for a wicked woman Re 2:20 It may be noted that she is said to have been the grand-aunt of Dido, the founder of Carthage.




Assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:3




God scatters.

1. A town of Issachar Jos 19:18 where the kings of Israel often resided 1Ki 18:45 21:1 2Ki 9:30 Here Elijah met Ahab, Jehu, and Bidkar; and here Jehu executed his dreadful commission against the house of Ahab 2Ki 9:14-37 10:1-11 It has been identified with the modern Zerin, on the most western point of the range of Gilboa, reaching down into the great and fertile valley of Jezreel, to which it gave its name.

2. A town in Judah Jos 15:56 to the south-east of Hebron. Ahinoam, one of David's wives, probably belonged to this place 1Sa 27:3

3. A symbolical name given by Hosea to his oldest son Ho 1:4 in token of a great slaughter predicted by him, like that which had formerly taken place in the plain of Esdraelon (comp.) Ho 1:4,5


Jezreel, Blood of


The murder perpetrated here by Ahab and Jehu Ho 1:4 comp. 1Ki 18:4 2Ki 9:6-10


Jezreel, Day of


The time predicted for the execution of vengeance for the deeds of blood committed there Ho 1:5


Jezreel, Ditch of


1Ki 21:23 comp. 1Ki 21:13 the fortification surrounding the city, outside of which Naboth was executed.


Jezreel, Fountain of


Where Saul encamped before the battle of Gilboa 1Sa 29:1. In the valley under Zerin there are two considerable springs, one of which, perhaps that here referred to, "flows from under a sort of cavern in the wall of conglomerate rock which here forms the base of Gilboa. The water is excellent; and issuing from crevices in the rocks, it spreads out at once into a fine limpid pool forty or fifty feet in diameter, full of fish" (Robinson). This may be identical with the "well of Harod" Jud 7:1 comp. 2Sa 23:25 probably the 'Ain Jalud, i.e., the "spring of Goliath."


Jezreel, Portion of


The field adjoining the city 2Ki 9:10,21,36,37 Here Naboth was stoned to death 1Ki 21:13


Jezreel, Tower of


One of the turrets which guarded the entrance to the city 2Ki 9:17


Jezreel, Valley of


Lying on the northern side of the city, between the ridges of Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of Esdraelon, running east to the Jordan Jos 17:16 Jud 6:33 Ho 1:5 It was the scene of the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon over the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the "children of the east" Jud 6:3 Two centuries after this the Israelites were here defeated by the Philistines, and Saul and Jonathan, with the flower of the army of Israel, fell 1Sa 31:1-6 This name was in after ages extended to the whole of the plain of Esdraelon (q.v.). It was only this plain of Jezreel and that north of Lake Huleh that were then accessible to the chariots of the Canaanites (comp.) 2Ki 9:21 10:15




Jehovah is his father.

1. One of the three sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and "captain of the host" during the whole of David's reign 2Sa 2:13 10:7 2Sa 11:1 1Ki 11:15 His father's name is nowhere mentioned, although his sepulchre at Bethlehem is mentioned 2Sa 2:32 His two brothers were Abishai and Asahel, the swift of foot, who was killed by Abner 2Sa 2:13-32 whom Joab afterwards treacherously murdered 2Sa 3:22-27 He afterwards led the assault at the storming of the fortress on Mount Zion, and for this service was raised to the rank of "prince of the king's army" 2Sa 5:6-10 1Ch 27:34 His chief military achievements were,

a. against the allied forces of Syria and Ammon;

b. against Edom 1Ki 11:15,16 and

c. against the Ammonites 2Sa 10:7-19 11:1,11 His character is deeply stained by the part he willingly took in the murder of Uriah 2Sa 11:14-25 He acted apparently from a sense of duty in putting Absalom to death 2Sa 18:1-14 David was unmindful of the many services Joab had rendered to him, and afterwards gave the command of the army to Amasa, Joab's cousin 2Sa 20:1-13 19:13 When David was dying Joab espoused the cause of Adonijah in preference to that of Solomon. He was afterwards slain by Benaiah, by the command of Solomon, in accordance with his father's injunction 2Sa 3:29 20:5-13 at the altar to which he had fled for refuge. Thus this hoary conspirator died without one to lift up a voice in his favour. He was buried in his own property in the "wilderness, "probably in the north-east of Jerusalem 1Ki 2:5,28-34 Benaiah succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the army.

2. 1Ch 4:14

3. Ezr 2:6




Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper.

1. One of the sons of Obed-edom 1Ch 26:4 a Korhite porter.

2. A Levite of the family of Gershom 1Ch 6:21 probably the same as Ethan 1Ch 6:42

3. The son of Asaph, and "recorder" (q.v.) or chronicler to King Hezekiah 2Ki 18:18,26,37

4. Son of Joahaz, and "recorder" (q.v.) or keeper of the state archives under King Josiah 2Ch 34:8




2Ch 34:8 a contracted form of Jehoahaz (q.v.).




Whom Jehovah has graciously given.

1. The grandson of Zerubbabel, in the lineage of Christ Lu 3:27 the same as Hananiah 1Ch 3:19

2. The wife of Chuza, the steward of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee Lu 8:3 She was one of the women who ministered to our Lord, and to whom he appeared after his resurrection Lu 8:3 24:10




Whom Jehovah bestowed.

1. A contracted form of Jehoash, the father of Gideon Jud 6:11,29 8:13,29,32

2. One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:3

3. One of King Ahab's sons 1Ki 22:26

4. King of Judah 2Ki 11:2 12:19,20

5. King of Israel 2Ki 13:9,12,13,25

6. 1Ch 7:8

7. One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David and Solomon 1Ch 27:28






Persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity Eze 14:14,20 and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities Jas 5:11 His history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.




Dweller in the desert.

1. One of the sons of Joktan, and founder of an Arabian tribe Ge 10:29

2. King of Edom, succeeded Bela Ge 36:33,34

3. A Canaanitish king Jos 11:1 who joined the confederacy against Joshua.


Job, Book of


1. A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this book.  From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs Ps 88:1 89:1 the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom, "and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon. Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds" Ac 7:22 He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the knowledge of the facts related. But the authorship is altogether uncertain.

2. As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of the greatest and sublimest poems in all literature. Job was a historical person, and the localities and names were real and not fictious. It is "one of the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-repleished storehouse of comfort and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious monument of primitive theology. It is to the Old Testament what the Epistle to the Romans is to the New." It is a didactic narrative in a dramatic form.  This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, B.C. 600 Eze 14:14 It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures used by our Lord and his apostles, and is referred to as a part of the inspired Word Heb 12:5 1Co 3:19

3. The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance, and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the truths of revelation and the dealings of Providence, which are seen to be at once inscrutable, just, and merciful. It shows the blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore afflictions, and thus ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of every age. It is a book of manifold instruction, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16 It consists of:


a. An historical introduction in prose (ch. 1-2)

b. The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6) Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends.

1. The first course gives the commencement of the controversy (ch. 4)

2. the second the growth of the controversy (15-21) and the third the height of the controversy (22-27).

3. This is followed by the solution of the controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah, followed by Job's humble confession Job 42:1-6 of his own fault and folly.

c. The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose Job 42:7-15. Sir J. W. Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than any other with its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other matters."




Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses Nu 26:59 She is spoken of as the sister of Kohath, Amram's father Ex 6:20 comp Ex 6:16,18 2:1-10




Jehovah is his God.

1. The oldest of Samuel's two sons appointed by him as judges in Beersheba 1Sa 8:2

2. A descendant of Reuben 1Ch 5:4,8

3. One of David's famous warriors 1Ch 11:38

4. A Levite of the family of Gershom 1Ch 15:7,11

5. 1Ch 7:3

6. 1Ch 27:20

7. The second of the twelve minor prophets. He was the son of Pethuel. His personal history is only known from his book.




A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:7


Joel, Book of


Joel was probably a resident in Judah, as his commission was to that people. He makes frequent mention of Judah and Jerusalem Joe 1:14 Joe 2:1,15,32 3:1,12,17,20,21 He probably flourished in the reign of Uzziah (about B.C. 800) and was contemporary with Amos and Isaiah. The contents of this book are,

1. A prophecy of a great public calamity then impending over the land, consisting of a want of water and an extraordinary plague of locusts Joe 1:1-2:11

2. The prophet then calls on his countrymen to repent and to turn to God, assuring them of his readiness to forgive Joe 2:12-17 and foretelling the restoration of the land to its accustomed fruitfulness Joe 2:18-26

3. Then follows a Messianic prophecy, quoted by Peter Joe 2:27-32 Ac 2:39

4. Finally, the prophet foretells portents and judgments as destined to fall on the enemies of God Joe 3:1-21 but in the Hebrew text chapter 4.




Jehovah is his help, one of the Korhites who became part of David's body-guard 1Ch 12:6




Whom Jehovah graciously bestows.

1. One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the desert of Judah 1Ch 12:12

2. The oldest of King Josiah's sons 1Ch 3:15

3. Son of Careah, one of the Jewish chiefs who rallied round Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar had made governor in Jerusalem 2Ki 25:23 Jer 40:8 He warned Gedaliah of the plans of Ishmael against him, a warning which was unheeded Jer 40:13,16 He afterwards pursued the murderer of the governor, and rescued the captives Jer 41:8,13,15,16 He and his associates subsequently fled to Tahpanhes in Egypt Jer 43:2,4,5 taking Jeremiah with them. "The flight of Gedaliah's community to Egypt extinguished the last remaining spark of life in the Jewish state. The work of the ten centuries since Joshua crossed the Jordan had been undone."




1. One who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in judgment on the apostles Peter and John Ac 4:6 He was of the kindred of the high priest; otherwise unknown.

2. The Hebrew name of Mark (q.v.). He is designated by this name in the Acts of the Apostles Ac 12:12,25 13:5,13 15:37

3. THE APOSTLE, brother of James the "Greater" Mt 4:21 10:2 Mr 1:19 3:17 10:35 He was one, probably the younger, of the sons of Zebedee Mt 4:21 and Salome Mt 27:56 comp. Mr 15:40 and was born at Bethsaida. His father was apparently a man of some wealth (comp. Mr 1:20 Lu 5:3 Joh 19:27 He was doubtless trained in all that constituted the ordinary education of Jewish youth.  When he grew up he followed the occupation of a fisherman on the Lake of Galilee. When John the Baptist began his ministry in the wilderness of Judea, John, with many others, gathered round him, and was deeply influenced by his teaching.  There he heard the announcement, "Behold the Lamb of God, "and forthwith, on the invitation of Jesus, became a disciple and ranked among his followers Joh 1:36,37 for a time. He and his brother then returned to their former avocation, for how long is uncertain. Jesus again called them Mt 4:21 Lu 5:1-11 and now they left all and permanently attached themselves to the company of his disciples. He became one of the innermost circle Mr 5:37 Mt 17:1 26:37 Mr 13:3 He was the disciple whom Jesus loved. In zeal and intensity of character he was a "Boanerges" Mr 3:17 This spirit once and again broke out Mt 20:20-24 Mr 10:35-41 Lu 9:49,54 At the betrayal he and Peter follow Christ afar off, while the others betake themselves to hasty flight Joh 18:15 At the trial he follows Christ into the council chamber, and thence to the praetorium Joh 18:16,19,28 and to the place of crucifixion Joh 19:26,27 To him and Peter, Mary first conveys tidings of the resurrection Joh 20:2 and they are the first to go and see what her strange words mean.  After the resurrection he and Peter again return to the Sea of Galilee, where the Lord reveals himself to them Joh 21:1,7 We find Peter and John frequently after this together Ac 3:1 4:13 John remained apparently in Jerusalem as the leader of the church there Ac 15:6 Ga 2:9 His subsequent history is unrecorded. He was not there, however, at the time of Paul's last visit Ac 21:15-40 He appears to have retired to Ephesus, but at what time is unknown.  The seven churches of Asia were the objects of his special care Re 1:11 He suffered under persecution, and was banished to Patmos Re 1:9 whence he again returned to Ephesus, where he died, probably about A.D. 98 having outlived all or nearly all the friends and companions even of his maturer years. There are many interesting traditions regarding John during his residence at Ephesus, but these cannot claim the character of historical truth.