John, First Epistle of


The fourth of the catholic or "general" epistles.

1. It was evidently written by John the evangelist, and probably also at Ephesus, and when the writer was in advanced age.

2. The purpose of the apostle 1Jo 1:1-4 is to declare the Word of Life to those to whom he writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship with the Father and his Son Jesus Christ. He shows that the means of union with God are,

a. On the part of Christ

1. His atoning work 1Jo 1:7 2:2 3:5 4:10,14 5:11,12

2. His advocacy 1Jo 2:1

b. on the part of man

1. Holiness 1Jo 1:6

2. obedience 1Jo 2:3

3. Purity 1Jo 3:3

4. Faith 1Jo 3:23 4:3 5:5

5. Love 1Jo 2:7,8 3:14 4:7 5:1


John, Gospel of


1. The genuineness of this Gospel, i.e., the fact that the apostle John was its author, is beyond all reasonable doubt. In recent times, from about 1820 many attempts have been made to impugn its genuineness, but without success.

2. The design of John in writing this Gospel is stated by himself Joh 20:31 It was at one time supposed that he wrote for the purpose of supplying the omissions of the synoptical, i.e., of the first three, Gospels, but there is no evidence for this. "There is here no history of Jesus and his teaching after the manner of the other evangelists. But there is in historical form a representation of the Christian faith in relation to the person of Christ as its central point; and in this representation there is a picture on the one hand of the antagonism of the world to the truth revealed in him, and on the other of the spiritual blessedness of the few who yield themselves to him as the Light of life" (Reuss).

3. Structure

a. The prologue Joh 1:1-5

b. The historical part of the book begins with verse 6 and consists of two parts.

1. The first part (1:6-ch. 12) contains the history of our Lord's public ministry from the time of his introduction to it by John the Baptist to its close.

2. The second part (ch. 13-21) presents our Lord in the retirement of private life and in his intercourse with his immediate followers (13-17) and gives an account of his sufferings and of his appearances to the disciples after his resurrection (18-21).

4. The peculiarities of this Gospel are the place it gives

a. to the mystical relation of the Son to the Father, and

b. of the Redeemer to believers

c. the announcement of the Holy Ghost as the Comforter;

d. the prominence given to love as an element in the Christian character.

e. It was obviously addressed primarily to Christians.

f. It was probably written at Ephesus, which, after the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) became the centre of Christian life and activity in the East, about A.D. 90


John, Second Epistle of


Is addressed to "the elect lady, "and closes with the words, "The children of thy elect sister greet thee; "but some would read instead of "lady" the proper name Kyria. Of the thirteen verses composing this epistle seven are in the First Epistle. The person addressed is commended for her piety, and is warned against false teachers.


John The Baptist


The "forerunner of our Lord." We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels. He was of priestly descent.  His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia 1Ch 24:10 and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron Lu 1:5 The mission of John was the subject of prophecy Mt 3:3 Isa 40:3 Mal 3:1 His birth, which took place six months before that of Jesus, was foretold by an angel. Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech restored to him on the occasion of his circumcision Lu 1:64 After this no more is recorded of him for thirty years than what is mentioned in Lu 1:80 John was a Nazarite from his birth Lu 1:15 Nu 6:1-12 He spent his early years in the mountainous tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea Mt 3:1-12 At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes from "every quarter" were attracted to him. The sum of his preaching was the necessity of repentance. He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees as a "generation of vipers, "and warned them of the folly of trusting to external privileges Lu 3:8 "As a preacher, John was eminently practical and discriminating.  Self-love and covetousness were the prevalent sins of the people at large. On them, therefore, he enjoined charity and consideration for others. The publicans he cautioned against extortion, the soldiers against crime and plunder." His doctrine and manner of life roused the entire south of Palestine, and the people from all parts flocked to the place where he was, on the banks of the Jordan. There he baptized thousands unto repentance. The fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth Mt 3:5 and he came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John, on the special ground that it became him to "fulfil all righteousness" Mt 3:15 John's special office ceased with the baptism of Jesus, who must now "increase" as the King come to his kingdom. He continued, however, for a while to bear testimony to the Messiahship of Jesus. He pointed him out to his disciples, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God." His public ministry was suddenly (after about six months probably) brought to a close by his being cast into prison by Herod, whom he had reproved for the sin of having taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip Lu 3:19 He was shut up in the castle of Machaerus (q.v.), a fortress on the southern extremity of Peraea, 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded.  His disciples, having consigned the headless body to the grave, went and told Jesus all that had occurred Mt 14:3-12 John's death occurred apparently just before the third Passover of our Lord's ministry. Our Lord himself testified regarding him that he was a "burning and a shining light" Joh 5:35


John, Third Epistle of


Is addressed to Caius, or Gaius, but whether to the Christian of that name in Macedonia Ac 19:29 or in Corinth Ro 16:23 or in Derbe Ac 20:4 is uncertain. It was written for the purpose of commending to Gaius some Christians who were strangers in the place where he lived, and who had gone thither for the purpose of preaching the gospel 3Jo 1:7 The Second and Third Epistles were probably written soon after the First, and from Ephesus.




(whom Jehovah favours) Jehoiada.

1. Ne 3:6

2. One of the high priests Ne 12:10,11,22




(whom Jehovah has set up) Jehoiakim, a high priest, the son and successor of Jeshua Ne 12:10,12,26




(whom Jehovah defends) Jehoiarib.

1. The founder of one of the courses of the priests Ne 11:10

2. Ne 11:5 a descendant of Judah.

3. Ne 12:6

4. Ezr 8:16 a "man of understanding" whom Ezra sent to "bring ministers for the house of God."




A city in the mountains of Judah Jos 15:56




Whom Jehovah has set up, one of the descendants of Shelah 1Ch 4:22




Gathering of the people, a city of Ephraim, which was given with its suburbs to the Levites 1Ch 6:68 It lay somewhere in the Jordan valley 1Ki 4:12 R.V.; but in A.V. incorrectly "Jokneam".




Gathered by the people, Jos 19:11 21:34 a city "of Carmel" Jos 12:22 i.e., on Carmel, allotted with its suburbs to the Merarite Levites. It is the modern Tell Kaimon, about 12 miles south-west of Nazareth, on the south of the river Kishon.




Snarer, the second son of Abraham and Keturah Ge 25:2,3 1Ch 1:32




Little, the second of the two sons of Eber Ge 10:25 1Ch 1:19 There is an Arab tradition that Joktan (Arab. Kahtan) was the progenitor of all the purest tribes of Central and Southern Arabia.




Subdued by God.

1. A city of Judah near Lachish Jos 15:38 Perhaps the ruin Kutlaneh, south of Gezer.

2. Amaziah, king of Judah, undertook a great expedition against Edom 2Ch 25:5-10 which was completely successful. He routed the Edomites and slew vast numbers of them. So wonderful did this victory appear to him that he acknowledged that it could have been achieved only by the special help of God, and therefore he called Selah (q.v.), their great fortress city, by the name of Joktheel 2Ki 14:7





1. The son of Rechab, and founder of the Rechabites (q.v.), 2Ki 10:15 Jer 35:6,10

2. The son of Shimeah, David's brother 2Sa 13:3 He was "a very subtil man."




A dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He was a prophet of Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries 2Ki 14:25-27 of the kingdom. He exercised his ministry very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them, and consequently may have been the very oldest of all the prophets whose writings we possess. His personal history is mainly to be gathered from the book which bears his name. It is chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he appears,

1. as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and

2. as a type of the "Son of man."


Jonah, Book of


This book professes to give an account of what actually took place in the experience of the prophet. Some critics have sought to interpret the book as a parable or allegory, and not as a history.  They have done so for various reasons. Thus:


1. some reject it on the ground that the miraculous element enters so largely into it, and that it is not prophetical but narrative in its form;

2. others, denying the possibility of miracles altogether, hold that therefore it cannot be true history.


Jonah and his story is referred to by our Lord Mt 12:39,40 Lu 11:29 a fact to which the greatest weight must be attached. It is impossible to interpret this reference on any other theory. This one argument is of sufficient importance to settle the whole question. No theories devised for the purpose of getting rid of difficulties can stand against such a proof that the book is a veritable history.


There is every reason to believe that this book was written by Jonah himself. It gives an account of

1. his divine commission to go to Nineveh, his disobedience, and the punishment following Jon 1:1-17

2. his prayer and miraculous deliverance Jon 2:1-10

3. the second commission given to him, and his prompt obedience in delivering the message from God, and its results in the repentance of the Ninevites, and God's long-sparing mercy toward them Jon 3:1-10

4. Jonah's displeasure at God's merciful decision, and the rebuke tendered to the impatient prophet Jon 4:1-11 Nineveh was spared after Jonah's mission for more than a century. The history of Jonah may well be regarded "as a part of that great onward movement which was before the Law and under the Law; which gained strength and volume as the fulness of the times drew near.", Perowne's Jonah.




1. Greek form of Jonah Mt 12:39,40,41 etc.

2. The father of the apostles Peter Joh 21:15-17 and Andrew; but the reading should be (also in) Joh 1:42 as in the Revised Version, "John, "instead of Jonas.




Whom Jehovah gave, the name of fifteen or more persons that are mentioned in Scripture. The chief of these are,

1. A Levite descended from Gershom Jud 18:30 His history is recorded in Jud 17:7-13 18:30 The Rabbins changed this name into Manasseh "to screen the memory of the great lawgiver from the stain of having so unworthy an apostate among his near descendants." He became priest of the idol image at Dan, and this office continued in his family till the Captivity.

2. The eldest son of king Saul, and the bosom friend of David. He is first mentioned when he was about thirty years of age, some time after his father's accession to the throne 1Sa 13:2 Like his father, he was a man of great strength and activity 2Sa 1:23 and excelled in archery and slinging 1Ch 12:2 2Sa 1:22 The affection that evidently subsisted between him and his father was interrupted by the growth of Saul's insanity. At length, "in fierce anger, "he left his father's presence and cast in his lot with the cause of David 1Sa 20:34 After an eventful career, interwoven to a great extent with that of David, he fell, along with his father and his two brothers, on the fatal field of Gilboa 1Sa 31:2,8 He was first buried at Jabesh-gilead, but his remains were afterwards removed with those of his father to Zelah, in Benjamin 2Sa 21:12-14 His death was the occasion of David's famous elegy of "the Song of the Bow" 2Sa 1:17-27 He left one son five years old, Merib-baal, or Mephibosheth 2Sa 4:4 comp. 1Ch 8:34

3. Son of the high priest Abiathar, and one who adhered to David at the time of Absalom's rebellion 2Sa 15:27,36 He is the last descendant of Eli of whom there is any record.

4. Son of Shammah, and David's nephew, and also one of his chief warriors 2Sa 21:21 He slew a giant in Gath.




Dove of the dumbness of the distance; i.e., "the silent dove in distant places", title of Ps 56:1 This was probably the name of some well known tune or melody to which the psalm was to be sung.




Beauty, a town in the portion of Dan Jos 19:46 A.V., "Japho", on a sandy promontory between Caesarea and Gaza, and at a distance of 30 miles north-west from Jerusalem. It is one of the oldest towns in Asia. It was and still is the chief sea-port of Judea. It was never wrested from the Phoenicians. It became a Jewish town only in the second century B.C. It was from this port that Jonah "took ship to flee from the presence of the Lord" Jon 1:3 To this place also the wood cut in Lebanon by Hiram's men for Solomon was brought in floats 2Ch 2:16 and here the material for the building of the second temple was also landed Ezr 3:7 At Joppa, in the house of Simon the tanner, "by the sea-side, "Peter resided "many days, "and here, "on the house-top, "he had his "vision of tolerance" Ac 9:36-43 It bears the modern name of Jaffa, and exibits all the decrepitude and squalor of cities ruled over by the Turks. "Scarcely any other town has been so often overthrown, sacked, pillaged, burned, and rebuilt." Its present population is said to be about 16,000 It was taken by the French under Napoleon in 1799 who gave orders for the massacre here of 4,000 prisoners. It is connected with Jerusalem by the only carriage road that exists in the country, and also by a railway completed in 1892 It is noticed on monuments B.C. 1600 and was attacked by Sannacharib B.C. 702.





1. One of the kings of Israel 2Ki 8:16,25,28 He was the son of Ahab.

2. Jehoram, the son and successor of Jehoshaphat on the throne of Judah 2Ki 8:24




Heb. Yarden, "the descender; "Arab. Nahr-esh-Sheriah, "the watering-place" the chief river of Palestine. It flows from north to south down a deep valley in the centre of the country. The name descender is significant of the fact that there is along its whole course a descent to its banks; or it may simply denote the rapidity with which it "descends" to the Dead Sea. It originates in the snows of Hermon, which feed its perennial fountains. Two sources are generally spoken of.

1. From the western base of a hill on which once stood the city of Dan, the northern border-city of Palestine, there gushes forth a considerable fountain called the Leddan, which is the largest fountain in Syria and the principal source of the Jordan.

2. Beside the ruins of Banias, the ancient Caesarea Philippi and the yet more ancient Panium, is a lofty cliff of limestone, at the base of which is a fountain. This is the other source of the Jordan, and has always been regarded by the Jews as its true source. It rushes down to the plain in a foaming torrent, and joins the Leddan about 5 miles south of Dan (Tell-el-Kady).

3. But besides these two historical fountains there is a third, called the Hasbany, which rises in the bottom of a valley at the western base of Hermon, 12 miles north of Tell-el-Kady. It joins the main stream about a mile below the junction of the Leddan and the Banias.


The river thus formed is at this point about 45 feet wide, and flows in a channel from 12 to 20 feet below the plain. After this it flows, "with a swift current and a much-twisted course, "through a marshy plain for some 6 miles, when it falls into the Lake Huleh, "the waters of Merom" (q.v.).  During this part of its course the Jordan has descended about 1,100 feet. At Banias it is 1,080 feet above sea-level. Flowing from the southern extremity of Lake Huleh, here almost on a level with the sea, it flows for 2 miles "through a waste of islets and papyrus, "and then for 9 miles through a narrow gorge in a foaming torrent onward to the Sea of Galilee (q.v.). "In the whole valley of the Jordan from the Lake Huleh to the Sea of Galilee there is not a single settled inhabitant. Along the whole eastern bank of the river and the lakes, from the base of Hermon to the ravine of Hieromax, a region of great fertility, 30 miles long by 7 or 8 wide, there are only some three inhabited villages. The western bank is almost as desolate.  Ruins are numerous enough.  Every mile or two is an old site of town or village, now well nigh hid beneath a dense jungle of thorns and thistles. The words of Scripture here recur to us with peculiar force: 'I will make your cities waste, and bring your sanctuaries unto desolation. And I will bring the land into desolation: and your enemies which dwell therein shall be astonished at it. And your land shall be desolate, and your cities waste. Then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, as long as it lieth desolate'" Le 26:31-34 Dr. Porter's Handbook. From the Sea of Galilee, at the level of 682 feet below the Mediterranean, the river flows through a long, low plain called "the region of Jordan" Mt 3:5 and by the modern Arabs the Ghor, or "sunken plain." This section is properly the Jordan of Scripture. Down through the midst of the "plain of Jordan" there winds a ravine varying in breadth from 200 yards to half a mile, and in depth from 40 to 150 feet. Through it the Jordan flows in a rapid, rugged, tortuous course down to the Dead Sea. The whole distance from the southern extremity of the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea is in a straight line about 65 miles, but following the windings of the river about 200 miles, during which it falls 618 feet. The total length of the Jordan from Banias is about 104 miles in a straight line, during which it falls 2,380 feet.  There are two considerable affluents which enter the river between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, both from the east.

1. The Wady Mandhur, called the Yarmuk by the Rabbins and the Hieromax by the Greeks. It formed the boundary between Bashan and Gilead. It drains the plateau of the Hauran.

2. The Jabbok or Wady Zerka, formerly the northern boundary of


Ammon. It enters the Jordan about 20 miles north of Jericho. The first historical notice of the Jordan is in the account of the separation of Abraham and Lot Ge 13:10 "Lot beheld the plain of Jordan as the garden of the Lord." Jacob crossed and recrossed "this Jordan" Ge 32:10 The Israelites passed over it as "on dry ground" Jos 3:17 Ps 114:3 Twice afterwards its waters were miraculously divided at the same spot by Elijah and Elisha 2Ki 2:8,14


The Jordan is mentioned in the Old Testament about one hundred and eighty times, and in the New Testament fifteen times. The chief events in gospel history connected with it are

1. John the Baptist's ministry, when "there went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and were baptized of him in Jordan" Mt 3:6

2. Jesus also "was baptized of John in Jordan" Mr 1:9




Remover or increaser.

1. The elder of the two sons of Jacob by Rachel Ge 30:23,24 who, on the occasion of his birth, said, "God hath taken away [Heb. 'asaph] my reproach." "The Lord shall add [Heb. yoseph] to me another son" Ge 30:24 He was a child of probably six years of age when his father returned from Haran to Canaan and took up his residence in the old patriarchal town of Hebron. "Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age, "and he "made him a long garment with sleeves" Ge 37:3 R.V. marg., i.e., a garment long and full, such as was worn by the children of nobles. This seems to be the correct rendering of the words. The phrase, however, may also be rendered, "a coat of many pieces", i.e., a patchwork of many small pieces of divers colours. When he was about seventeen years old Joseph incurred the jealous hatred of his brothers Ge 37:4 They "hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him." Their anger was increased when he told them his dreams Ge 37:11 Jacob desiring to hear tidings of his sons, who had gone to Shechem with their flocks, some 60 miles from Hebron, sent Joseph as his messenger to make inquiry regarding them. Joseph found that they had left Shechem for Dothan, whither he followed them. As soon as they saw him coming they began to plot against him, and would have killed him had not Reuben interposed. They ultimately sold him to a company of Ishmaelite merchants for twenty pieces (shekels) of silver (about 10s.), ten pieces less than the current value of a slave, for "they cared little what they had for him, if so be they were rid of him." These merchants were going down with a varied assortment of merchandise to the Egyptian market, and thither they conveyed him, and ultimately sold him as a slave to Potiphar, an "officer of Pharaoh's, and captain of the guard" Ge 37:36 "The Lord blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake, "and Potiphar made him overseer over his house. At length a false charge having been brought against him by Potiphar's wife, he was at once cast into the state prison Ge 39:1-40:23 where he remained for at least two years. After a while the "chief of the cupbearers" and the "chief of the bakers" of Pharaoh's household were cast into the same prison Ge 40:2 Each of these new prisoners dreamed a dream in the same night, which Joseph interpreted, the event occurring as he had said.  This led to Joseph's being remembered subsequently by the chief butler when Pharaoh also dreamed. At his suggestion Joseph was brought from prison to interpret the king's dreams. Pharaoh was well pleased with Joseph's wisdom in interpreting his dreams, and with his counsel with reference to the events then predicted; and he set him over all the land of Egypt Ge 41:46 and gave him the name of Zaphnath-paaneah. He was married to Asenath, the daughter of the priest of On, and thus became a member of the priestly class. Joseph was now about thirty years of age. As Joseph had interpreted, seven years of plenty came, during which he stored up great abundance of corn in granaries built for the purpose. These years were followed by seven years of famine "over all the face of the earth, "when "all countries came into Egypt to Joseph to buy corn" Ge 41:56,57 47:13,14 Thus "Joseph gathered up all the money that was in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they bought." Afterwards all the cattle and all the land, and at last the Egyptians themselves, became the property of Pharaoh. During this period of famine Joseph's brethren also came down to Egypt to buy corn.  The history of his dealings with them, and of the manner in which he at length made himself known to them, is one of the most interesting narratives that can be read Ge 42:1-45:15 Joseph directed his brethren to return and bring Jacob and his family to the land of Egypt, saying, "I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the land. Regard not your stuff; for the good of all the land is yours." Accordingly Jacob and his family, to the number of threescore and ten souls, together with "all that they had, "went down to Egypt. They were settled in the land of Goshen, where Joseph met his father, and "fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while" Ge 46:29 The excavations of Dr. Naville have shown the land of Goshen to be the Wady Tumilat, between Ismailia and Zagazig. In Goshen (Egyptian Qosem) they had pasture for their flocks, were near the Asiatic frontier of Egypt, and were out of the way of the Egyptian people. An inscription speaks of it as a district given up to the wandering shepherds of Asia. Jacob at length died, and in fulfilment of a promise which he had exacted, Joseph went up to Canaan to bury his father in "the field of Ephron the Hittite" Ge 47:29-31 50:1-14 This was the last recorded act of Joseph, who again returned to Egypt. "The 'Story of the Two Brothers, 'an Egyptian romance written for the son of the Pharaoh of the Oppression, contains an episode very similar to the Biblical account of Joseph's treatment by Potiphar's wife. Potiphar and Potipherah are the Egyptian Pa-tu-pa-Ra, 'the gift of the sun-god.' The name given to Joseph, Zaphnath-paaneah, is probably the Egyptian Zaf-nti-pa-ankh, 'nourisher of the living one, 'i.e., of the Pharaoh. There are many instances in the inscriptions of foreigners in Egypt receiving Egyptian names, and rising to the highest offices of state." By his wife Asenath, Joseph had two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim Ge 41:50 Joseph having obtained a promise from his brethren that when the time should come that God would "bring them unto the land which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, "they would carry up his bones out of Egypt, at length died, at the age of one hundred and ten years; and "they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin" Ge 50:26 This promise was faithfully observed. Their descendants, long after, when the Exodus came, carried the body about with them during their forty years' wanderings, and at length buried it in Shechem, in the parcel of ground which Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor Jos 24:32 comp. Ge 33:19 With the death of Joseph the patriarchal age of the history of Israel came to a close. The Pharaoh of Joseph's elevation was probably Apepi, or Apopis, the last of the Hyksos kings. Some, however, think that Joseph came to Egypt in the reign of Thothmes III. See PHARAOH long after the expulsion of the Hyksos. The name Joseph denotes the two tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh in De 33:13-17 the kingdom of Israel in Eze 37:16,19 Am 5:6 and the whole covenant people of Israel in Ps 81:4

2. One of the sons of Asaph, head of the first division of sacred musicians 1Ch 25:2,9

3. The son of Judah, and father of Semei Lu 3:26 Other two of the same name in the ancestry of Christ are also mentioned Lu 3:24,30

4. The foster-father of our Lord Mt 1:16 Lu 3:23 He lived at Nazareth in Galilee Lu 2:4 He is called a "just man." He was by trade a carpenter Mt 13:55 He is last mentioned in connection with the journey to Jerusalem, when Jesus was twelve years old. It is probable that he died before Jesus entered on his public ministry. This is concluded from the fact that Mary only was present at the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee. His name does not appear in connection with the scenes of the crucifixion along with that of Mary (q.v.), Joh 19:25

5. A native of Arimathea, probably the Ramah of the Old Testament 1Sa 1:19 a man of wealth, and a member of the Sanhedrim Mt 27:57 Lu 23:50 an "honourable counsellor, who waited for the kingdom of God." As soon as he heard the tidings of Christ's death, he "went in boldly" (lit. "having summoned courage, he went") "unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus." Pilate having ascertained from the centurion that the death had really taken place, granted Joseph's request, who immediately, having purchased fine linen Mr 15:46 proceeded to Golgotha to take the body down from the cross. There, assisted by Nicodemus, he took down the body and wrapped it in the fine linen, sprinkling it with the myrrh and aloes which Nicodemus had brought Joh 19:39 and then conveyed the body to the new tomb hewn by Joseph himself out of a rock in his garden hard by. There they laid it, in the presence of Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of Joses, and other women, and rolled a great stone to the entrance, and departed Lu 23:53,55 This was done in haste, "for the Sabbath was drawing on" (comp.) Isa 53:9

6. Surnamed Barsabas Ac 1:23 also called Justus. He was one of those who "companied with the apostles all the time that the Lord Jesus went out and in among them" Ac 1:21 and was one of the candidates for the place of Judas.




Jehovah is his help, or Jehovah the Saviour. The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses as the leader of Israel. He is called Jehoshua in Nu 13:16 (A.V.), and Jesus in Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8 (R.V., Joshua). He was born in Egypt, and was probably of the age of Caleb, with whom he is generally associated. He shared in all the events of the Exodus, and held the place of commander of the host of the Israelites at their great battle against the Amalekites in Rephidim Ex 17:8-16 He became Moses' minister or servant, and accompanied him part of the way when he ascended Mount Sinai to receive the two tables Ex 32:17 He was also one of the twelve who were sent on by Moses to explore the land of Canaan Nu 13:16,17 and only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report. Under the direction of God, Moses, before his death, invested Joshua in a public and solemn manner with authority over the people as his successor De 31:23 The people were encamped at Shittim when he assumed the command Jos 1:1 and crossing the Jordan, they encamped at Gilgal, where, having circumcised the people, he kept the Passover, and was visited by the Captain of the Lord's host, who spoke to him encouraging words Jos 1:1-9 Now began the wars of conquest which Joshua carried on for many years, the record of which is in the book which bears his name. Six nations and thirty-one kings were conquered by him Jos 11:18-23 12:24 Having thus subdued the Canaanites, Joshua divided the land among the tribes, Timnath-serah in Mount Ephraim being assigned to himself as his own inheritance.


His work being done, he died, at the age of one hundred and ten years, twenty-five years after having crossed the Jordan. He was buried in his own city of Timnath-serah Jos 24:1ff. and "the light of Israel for the time faded away." Joshua has been regarded as a type of Christ Heb 4:8 in the following particulars:

1. In the name common to both;

2. Joshua brings the people into the possession of the Promised Land, as Jesus brings his people to the heavenly Canaan; and

3. as Joshua succeeded Moses, so the Gospel succeeds the Law. The character of Joshua is thus well sketched by Edersheim:, "Born a slave in Egypt, he must have been about forty years old at the time of the Exodus. Attached to the person of Moses, he led Israel in the first decisive battle against Amalek Ex 17:9,13 while Moses in the prayer of faith held up to heaven the God-given 'rod.' It was no doubt on that occasion that his name was changed from Oshea, 'help, 'to Jehoshua, 'Jehovah is help' Nu 13:16 And this name is the key to his life and work. Alike in bringing the people into Canaan, in his wars, and in the distribution of the land among the tribes, from the miraculous crossing of Jordan and taking of Jericho to his last address, he was the embodiment of his new name, 'Jehovah is help.' To this outward calling his character also corresponded. It is marked by singleness of purpose, directness, and decision. He sets an object before him, and unswervingly follows it" (Bible Hist., iii. 103)


Joshua, The Book of


Contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua. It consists of three parts:

1. The history of the conquest of the land (1-12)

2. The allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22) and the dismissal of the eastern tribes to their homes. This section has been compared to the Domesday Book of the Norman conquest.

3. The farewell addresses of Joshua, with an account of his death (23, 24)


This book stands first in the second of the three sections,

1. the Law,

2. the Prophets,

3. the "other writings" Hagiographa, into which the Jewish Church divided the Old Testament.


There is every reason for concluding that the uniform tradition of the Jews is correct when they assign the authorship of the book to Joshua, all except the concluding section; the last verses Jos 24:29-33 were added by some other hand. There are two difficulties connected with this book which have given rise to much discussion,

1. The miracle of the standing still of the sun and moon on Gibeon. The record of it occurs in Joshua's impassioned prayer of faith, as quoted Jos 10:12-15 from the "Book of Jasher" (q.v.). There are many explanations given of these words. They need, however, present no difficulty if we believe in the possibility of God's miraculous interposition in behalf of his people. Whether it was caused by the refraction of the light, or how, we know not.

2. Another difficulty arises out of the command given by God utterly to exterminate the Canaanites. "Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?" It is enough that Joshua clearly knew that this was the will of God, who employs his terrible agencies, famine, pestilence, and war, in the righteous government of this world. The Canaanites had sunk into a state of immorality and corruption so foul and degrading that they had to be rooted out of the land with the edge of the sword. "The Israelites' sword, in its bloodiest executions, wrought a work of mercy for all the countries of the earth to the very end of the world." This book resembles the Acts of the Apostles in the number and variety of historical incidents it records, and in its many references to persons and places; and as in the latter case the epistles of Paul (see Paley's Horae Paul.) confirm its historical accuracy by their incidental allusions and "undesigned coincidences, "so in the former modern discoveries confirm its historicity. The Amarna tablets See ADONIZEDEC are among the most remarkable discoveries of the age. Dating from about B.C. 1480 down to the time of Joshua, and consisting of official communications from Amorite, Phoenician, and Philistine chiefs to the king of Egypt, they afford a glimpse into the actual condition of Palestine prior to the Hebrew invasion, and illustrate and confirm the history of the conquest. A letter, also still extant, from a military officer, "master of the captains of Egypt, "dating from near the end of the reign of Rameses II., gives a curious account of a journey, probably official, which he undertook through Palestine as far north as to Aleppo, and an insight into the social condition of the country at that time. Among the things brought to light by this letter and the Amarna tablets is the state of confusion and decay that had now fallen on Egypt. The Egyptian garrisons that had held possession of Palestine from the time of Thothmes III., some two hundred years before, had now been withdrawn. The way was thus opened for the Hebrews. In the history of the conquest there is no mention of Joshua having encountered any Egyptian force. The tablets contain many appeals to the king of Egypt for help against the inroads of the Hebrews, but no help seems ever to have been sent. Is not this just such a state of things as might have been anticipated as the result of the disaster of the Exodus? In many points, as shown under various articles, the progress of the conquest is remarkably illustrated by the tablets. The value of modern discoveries in their relation to Old Testament history has been thus well described: "The difficulty of establishing the charge of lack of historical credibility, as against the testimony of the Old Testament, has of late years greatly increased. The outcome of recent excavations and explorations is altogether against it. As long as these books contained, in the main, the only known accounts of the events they mention, there was some plausibility in the theory that perhaps these accounts were written rather to teach moral lessons than to preserve an exact knowledge of events. It was easy to say in those times men had not the historic sense. But the recent discoveries touch the events recorded in the Bible at very many different points in many different generations, mentioning the same persons, countries, peoples, events that are mentioned in the Bible, and showing beyond question that these were strictly historic. The point is not that the discoveries confirm the correctness of the Biblical statements, though that is commonly the case, but that the discoveries show that the peoples of those ages had the historic sense, and, specifically, that the Biblical narratives they touch are narratives of actual occurrences."




Healed by Jehovah, or Jehovah will support. The son of Amon, and his successor on the throne of Judah 2Ki 22:1 2Ch 34:1 His history is contained in 2Ki 22:1-23:30 He stands foremost among all the kings of the line of David for unswerving loyalty to Jehovah 2Ki 23:25 He "did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and walked in all the way of David his father." He ascended the throne at the early age of eight years, and it appears that not till eight years afterwards did he begin "to seek after the God of David his father." At that age he devoted himself to God. He distinguished himself by beginning a war of extermination against the prevailing idolatry, which had practically been the state religion for some seventy years 2Ch 34:3 comp. Jer 25:3,11,29 In the eighteenth year of his reign he proceeded to repair and beautify the temple, which by time and violence had become sorely dilapidated 2Ki 22:3,5,6 23:23 2Ch 34:11 While this work was being carried on, Hilkiah, the high priest, discovered a roll, which was probably the original copy of the law, the entire Pentateuch, written by Moses. When this book was read to him, the king was alarmed by the things it contained, and sent for Huldah, the "prophetess, "for her counsel. She spoke to him words of encouragement, telling him that he would be gathered to his fathers in peace before the threatened days of judgment came. Josiah immediately gathered the people together, and engaged them in a renewal of their ancient national covenant with God. The Passover was then celebrated, as in the days of his great predecessor, Hezekiah, with unusual magnificence. Nevertheless, "the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah" 2Ki 22:3-20 23:21-27 2Ch 35:1-19 During the progress of this great religious revolution Jeremiah helped it on by his earnest exhortations. Soon after this, Pharaoh-Necho II. (q.v.), king of Egypt, in an expedition against the king of Assyria, with the view of gaining possession of Carchemish, sought a passage through the territory of Judah for his army. This Josiah refused to permit. He had probably entered into some new alliance with the king of Assyria, and faithful to his word he sought to oppose the progress of Necho. The army of Judah went out and encountered that of Egypt at Megiddo, on the verge of the plain of Esdraelon. Josiah went into the field in disguise, and was fatally wounded by a random arrow. His attendants conveyed him toward Jerusalem, but had only reached Hadadrimmon, a few miles south of Megiddo, when he died 2Ki 23:28,30 comp. 2Ch 35:20-27 after a reign of thirty-one years. He was buried with the greatest honours in fulfilment of Huldah's prophecy 2Ki 22:20 comp.  Jer 34:5 Jeremiah composed a funeral elegy on this the best of the kings of Israel La 4:20 2Ch 35:25 The outburst of national grief on account of his death became proverbial Zec 12:11 comp. Re 16:16




Or Iota, the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, used metaphorically or proverbially for the smallest thing Mt 5:18 or it may be yod, which is the smallest of the Hebrew letters.




Jehovah is perfect.

1. The youngest of Gideon's seventy sons. He escaped when the rest were put to death by the order of Abimelech Jud 9:5 When "the citizens of Shechem and the whole house of Millo" were gathered together "by the plain of the pillar" (i.e., the stone set up by Joshua,)Jos 24:26 comp. Ge 35:4 "that was in Shechem, to make Abimelech king, "from one of the heights of Mount Gerizim he protested against their doing so in the earliest parable, that of the bramble-king. His words then spoken were prophetic. There came a recoil in the feelings of the people toward Abimelech, and then a terrible revenge, in which many were slain and the city of Shechem was destroyed by Abimelech Jud 9:45 Having delivered his warning, Jotham fled to Beer from the vengeance of Abimelech Jud 9:7-21

2. The son and successor of Uzziah on the throne of Judah. As during his last years Uzziah was excluded from public life on account of his leprosy, his son, then twenty-five years of age, administered for seven years the affairs of the kingdom in his father's stead 2Ch 26:21,23 27:1 After his father's death he became sole monarch, and reigned for sixteen years (B.C. 759) He ruled in the fear of God, and his reign was prosperous. He was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, by whose ministrations he profited. He was buried in the sepulchre of the kings, greatly lamented by the people 2Ki 15:38 2Ch 27:7-9




1. A day's journey in the East is from 16 to 20 miles Nu 11:31

2. A Sabbath-day's journey is 2,000 paces or yards from the city walls Ac 1:12 According to Jewish tradition, it was the distance one might travel without violating the law of Ex 16:29






Whom Jehovah bestows.

1. One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag 1Ch 12:4

2. A chief of the tribe of Manasseh 1Ch 12:20




Jehovah-remembered, one of the two servants who assassinated Jehoash, the king of Judah, in Millo 2Ki 12:21 He is called also Zabad 2Ch 24:26




Jubilee, music, Lamech's second son by Adah, of the line of Cain. He was the inventor of "the harp" (Heb. kinnor, properly "lyre") and "the organ" (Heb. 'ugab, properly "mouth-organ" or Pan's pipe), Ge 4:21




A joyful shout or clangour of trumpets, the name of the great semi-centennial festival of the Hebrews. It lasted for a year. During this year the land was to be fallow, and the Israelites were only permitted to gather the spontaneous produce of the fields Le 25:11,12 All landed property during that year reverted to its original owner Le 25:13-34 27:16-24 and all who were slaves were set free Le 25:39-54 and all debts were remitted. The return of the jubilee year was proclaimed by a blast of trumpets which sounded throughout the land. There is no record in Scripture of the actual observance of this festival, but there are numerous allusions Isa 5:7,8,9,10 61:1,2 Eze 7:12,13 Ne 5:1-19 2Ch 36:21 which place it beyond a doubt that it was observed. The advantages of this institution were manifold:

1. It would prevent the accumulation of land on the part of a few to the detriment of the community at large.

2. It would render it impossible for any one to be born to absolute poverty, since every one had his hereditary land.

3. It would preclude those inequalities which are produced by extremes of riches and poverty, and which make one man domineer over another.

4. It would utterly do away with slavery.

5. It would afford a fresh opportunity to those who were reduced by adverse circumstances to begin again their career of industry in the patrimony which they had temporarily forfeited.

6. It would periodically rectify the disorders which crept into the state in the course of time, preclude the division of the people into nobles and plebeians, and preserve the theocracy inviolate."


Was the Jubille Every 50 or 49 Years?


There is a difference of opinion as to when the year of jubilee commenced. To understand the Jubilee you must also understand the Sabbatical Year, which occurred every seven years.


``Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; but in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land, a sabbath for Jehovah: thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard''Le 25:3,4


These tables represent the last seven years before the Jubilee.


                  Table A              Table B

               50 Year Cycle        49 Year Cycle


      Year Month

        1  1-12   1st Year**           1st Year**

        2  1-12   2nd Year*            2nd Year*

        3  1-12   3rd Year*            3rd Year*

        4  1-12   4th Year*            4th Year*

        5  1-12   5th Year*            5th Year*

        6  1-12   6th Year*            6th Year*

        7  1-6    Sabbatical Year***   Sabbatical Year***

           7-12  "                  "               Jubilee

        8  1-5    Jubilee***                            Jubilee

           6-12  "                   1st Year**

        9  1-12   1st Year**           2nd Year*


     * -Harvest, Ingathering, Sowing

     **-No Harvest, Ingathering, Sowing

     ***-No Harvest, No Ingathering, No Sowing



The above passage speaks of six years of sowing, and six years of pruning the vineyard and gathering in the fruit thereof, but does not speak of six years of harvest. In the above tables it will be seen there would have been only "five" harvests in the seven years. Then the question arises, Did the Jubilee commence at the end of the seventh Sabbatical year, as in table A? If so there would be then three years without any harvest.  If this was what God intended, he would have provided for his obedient people. Some, like Ussher, however judge that the Jubilee year was really half of the seventh Sabbatical year, and half of the first year of the following seven, as in table B. This seems confirmed by the trumpet being sounded on the 10th day of the seventh month. Still it is called the fiftieth year. Le 25:8-11


Page 455-6, "Concise Bible Dictionary", Bible Truth Publishers,

59 Industrial Road, Addison, Ill, 60101.




1. The patriarch Judah, son of Jacob Lu 3:33 Heb 7:14.

2. The tribe of Judah Lu 1:39 Heb 7:14 Re 5:5 7:5.

3. The father of Simeon in Christ's maternal ancestry Lu 3:30

4. Son of Joanna, and father of Joseph in Christ's maternal ancestry Lu 3:26 probably identical with Abiud Mt 1:13 and with Obadiah 1Ch 3:21

5. One of the Lord's "brethren" Mr 6:3




Praise, the fourth son of Jacob by Leah. The name originated in Leah's words of praise to the Lord on account of his birth: "Now will I praise [Heb. odeh] Jehovah, and she called his name Yehudah" Ge 29:35 It was Judah that interposed in behalf of Joseph, so that his life was spared Ge 37:26,27 He took a lead in the affairs of the family, and "prevailed above his brethren" Ge 43:3-10 44:14,16-34 46:28 1Ch 5:2 Soon after the sale of Joseph to the Ishmaelites, Judah went to reside at Adullam, where he married a woman of Canaan.


After the death of his wife Shuah, he returned to his father's house, and there exercised much influence over the patriarch, taking a principal part in the events which led to the whole family at length going down into Egypt. We hear nothing more of him till he received his father's blessing Ge 49:8-12


Judah, Kingdom of


When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom Jos 18:28 which was called the kingdom of Judah. It was very small in extent, being only about the size of the Scottish county of Perth. For the first sixty years the kings of Judah aimed at re-establishing their authority over the kingdom of the other ten tribes, so that there was a state of perpetual war between them. For the next eighty years there was no open war between them. For the most part they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common enemies, especially against Damascus. For about another century and a half Judah had a somewhat checkered existence after the termination of the kingdom of Israel till its final overthrow in the destruction of the temple (B.C. 588) by Nebuzar-adan, who was captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard 2Ki 25:8-21 The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred and eighty-nine years. It occupied an area of 3,435 square miles.




Judah, Tribe of


Judah and his three surviving sons went down with Jacob into Egypt Ge 46:12 Ex 1:2 At the time of the Exodus, when we meet with the family of Judah again, they have increased to the number of 74,000 males Nu 1:26,27 Its number increased in the wilderness Nu 26:22 Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, represented the tribe as one of the spies Nu 13:6 34:19 This tribe marched at the van on the east of the tabernacle Nu 2:3-9 10:14 its standard, as is supposed, being a lion's whelp. Under Caleb, during the wars of conquest, they conquered that portion of the country which was afterwards assigned to them as their inheritance. This was the only case in which any tribe had its inheritance thus determined Jos 14:6-15 15:13-19 The inheritance of the tribe of Judah was at first fully one-third of the whole country west of Jordan, in all about 2,300 square miles Jos 15:1ff. But there was a second distribution, when Simeon received an allotment, about 1,000 square miles, out of the portion of Judah Jos 19:9 That which remained to Judah was still very large in proportion to the inheritance of the other tribes. The boundaries of the territory are described in Jos 15:20-63 This territory given to Judah was divided into four sections.

1. The south (Heb. negeb), the undulating pasture-ground between the hills and the desert to the south Jos 15:21 This extent of pasture-land became famous as the favourite camping-ground of the old patriarchs.

2. The "valley" Jos 15:33 or lowland (Heb. shephelah), a broad strip lying between the central highlands and the Mediterranean. This tract was the garden as well as the granary of the tribe.

3. The "hill-country, "or the mountains of Judah, an elevated plateau stretching from below Hebron northward to Jerusalem. "The towns and villages were generally perched on the tops of hills or on rocky slopes. The resources of the soil were great. The country was rich in corn, wine, oil, and fruit; and the daring shepherds were able to lead their flocks far out over the neighbouring plains and through the mountains." The number of towns in this district was thirty-eight Jos 15:48-60

4. The "wilderness, "the sunken district next the Dead Sea Jos 15:61 "averaging 10 miles in breadth, a wild, barren, uninhabitable region, fit only to afford scanty pasturage for sheep and goats, and a secure home for leopards, bears, wild goats, and outlaws" 1Sa 17:34 22:1 Mr 1:13 It was divided into the "wilderness of En-gedi" 1Sa 24:1 the "wilderness of Judah" Jud 1:16 Mt 3:1 between the Hebron mountain range and the Dead Sea, the "wilderness of Maon" 1Sa 23:24 It contained only six cities.  Nine of the cities of Judah were assigned to the priests Jos 21:9-19


Judah Upon Jordan


The Authorized Version, following the Vulgate, has this rendering in Jos 19:34 It has been suggested that, following the Masoretic punctuation, the expression should read thus, "and Judah; the Jordan was toward the sun-rising." The sixty cities (Havoth-jair,) Nu 32:41 on the east of Jordan were reckoned as belonging to Judah, because Jair, their founder, was a Manassite only on his mother's side, but on his father's side of the tribe of Judah 1Ch 2:5,21-23




The Graecized form of Judah.

1. The patriarch Mt 1:2,3

2. Son of Simon Joh 6:71 13:2,26 surnamed Iscariot, i.e., a man of Kerioth Jos 15:25 His name is uniformly the last in the list of the apostles, as given in the synoptic (i.e., the first three) Gospels. The evil of his nature probably gradually unfolded itself till "Satan entered into him" Joh 13:27 and he betrayed our Lord Joh 18:3 Afterwards he owned his sin with "an exceeding bitter cry, "and cast the money he had received as the wages of his iniquity down on the floor of the sanctuary, and "departed and went and hanged himself" Mt 27:5 He perished in his guilt, and "went unto his own place" Ac 1:25 The statement in Ac 1:18 that he "fell headlong and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out, "is in no way contrary to that in Mt 27:5 The sucide first hanged himself, perhaps over the valley of Hinnom, "and the rope giving way, or the branch to which he hung breaking, he fell down headlong on his face, and was crushed and mangled on the rocky pavement below." Why such a man was chosen to be an apostle we know not, but it is written that "Jesus knew from the beginning who should betray him" Joh 6:64 Nor can any answer be satisfactorily given to the question as to the motives that led Judas to betray his Master. "Of the motives that have been assigned we need not care to fix on any one as that which simply led him on. Crime is, for the most part, the result of a hundred motives rushing with bewildering fury through the mind of the criminal."

3. A Jew of Damascus Ac 9:11 to whose house Ananias was sent. The street called "Straight" in which it was situated is identified with the modern "street of bazaars, "where is still pointed out the so-called "house of Judas."

4. A Christian teacher, surnamed Barsabas. He was sent from Jerusalem to Antioch along with Paul and Barnabas with the decision of the council Ac 15:22,27,32 He was a "prophet" and a "chief man among the brethren."




=Judas. Among the apostles there were two who bore this name,

1. Judas Jude 1:1 Mt 13:55 Joh 14:22 Ac 1:13 called also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus Mt 10:3 Mr 3:18

2. Judas Iscariot Mt 10:4 Mr 3:19 He who is called "the brother of James" Lu 6:16 may be the same with the Judas surnamed Lebbaeus. The only thing recorded regarding him is in Joh 14:22




After the Captivity this name was applied to the whole of the country west of the Jordan Hag 1:1,14 2:2 (Juda) But under the Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of the three divisions of Palestine Mt 2:1,5 3:1 4:25 although it was also sometimes used for Palestine generally Ac 28:21 The province of Judea, as distinguished from Galilee and Samaria, included the territories of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, and part of Ephraim. Under the Romans it was a part of the province of Syria, and was governed by a procurator.


Jude, Epistle of


1. The author was "Judas, the brother of James" the Less Jude 1:1 called also Lebbaeus Mt 10:3 and Thaddaeus Mr 3:18

2. The genuineness of this epistle was early questioned, and doubts regarding it were revived at the time of the Reformation; but the evidences in support of its claims are complete. It has all the marks of having proceeded from the writer whose name it bears.

3. There is nothing very definite to determine the time and place at which it was written. It was apparently written in the later period of the apostolic age, for when it was written there were persons still alive who had heard the apostles preach Jude 1:17 It may thus have been written about A.D. 66 or 70 and apparently in Palestine. The epistle is addressed to Christians in general Jude 1:1 and its design is to put them on their guard against the misleading efforts of a certain class of errorists to which they were exposed.

4. The style of the epistle is that of an "impassioned invective, in the impetuous whirlwind of which the writer is hurried along, collecting example after example of divine vengeance on the ungodly; heaping epithet upon epithet, and piling image upon image, and, as it were, labouring for words and images strong enough to depict the polluted character of the licentious apostates against whom he is warning the Church; returning again and again to the subject, as though all language was insufficient to give an adequate idea of their profligacy, and to express his burning hatred of their perversion of the doctrines of the gospel." The striking resemblance this epistle bears to 2 Peter suggests the idea that the author of the one had seen the epistle of the other. The doxology with which the epistle concludes is regarded as the finest in the New Testament.




(Heb. shophet, pl. shophetim), properly a magistrate or ruler, rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause. This is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the accession of Saul Jud 2:18 a period of general anarchy and confusion. "The office of judges or regents was held during life, but it was not hereditary, neither could they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited by the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim Nu 27:21 Their authority extended only over those tribes by whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income attached to their office, and they bore no external marks of dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar position of having been from before his birth ordained 'to begin to deliver Israel.' Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio upon him." Of five of the judges, Tola Jud 10:1 Jair Jud 10:3 Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon Jud 12:8-15 we have no record at all beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its onward progress. In Ex 2:14 Moses is so styled. This fact may indicate that while for revenue purposes the "taskmasters" were over the people, they were yet, just as at a later time when under the Romans, governed by their own rulers.


Judges, Book of


Is so called because it contains the history of the deliverance and government of Israel by the men who bore the title of the "judges." The book of Ruth originally formed part of this book, but about A.D. 450 it was separated from it and placed in the Hebrew scriptures immediately after the Song of Solomon. The book contains,

1. An introduction (1-3:6) connecting it with the previous narrative in Joshua, as a "link in the chain of books."

2. The history of the thirteen judges (3:7-16:31) in the following order:


       a. FIRST PERIOD (3:7-ch. 5)                                Years

           1. Servitude under Chushan-rishathaim of Mesopotamia     8

              (1) OTHNIEL delivers Israel, rest                    40

           2. Servitude under Eglon of Moab: Ammon, Amalek         18

              (2) EHUD'S deliverance, rest                         80

              (3) SHAMGAR Unknown.

           3. Servitude under Jabin of Hazor in Canaan             20

              (4) DEBORAH and, (5) BARAK                           40



       b. SECOND PERIOD (6-10:5)

           4. Servitude under Midian, Amalek, and children of

              the east                                              7

              (6) GIDEON                                           40

              ABIMELECH, Gideon's son, reigns as king over Israel   3

              (7) TOLA                                             23

              (8) JAIR                                             22



       c. THIRD PERIOD (10:6-ch. 12)

           5. Servitude under Ammonites with the Philistines       18

              (9) JEPHTHAH                                          6

              (10) IBZAN                                            7

              (11) ELON                                            10

              (12) ABDON                                            8



       d. FOURTH PERIOD (13-16)

           6. Seritude under Philistines                           40

              (13) SAMSON                                          20




                                                           In all 410


Samson's exploits probably synchronize with the period immediately preceding the national repentance and reformation under Samuel 1Sa 7:2-6 After Samson came Eli, who was both high priest and judge. He directed the civil and religious affairs of the people for forty years, at the close of which the Philistines again invaded the land and oppressed it for twenty years. Samuel was raised up to deliver the people from this oppression, and he judged Israel for some twelve years, when the direction of affairs fell into the hands of Saul, who was anointed king. If Eli and Samuel are included, there were then fifteen judges. But the chronology of this whole period is uncertain.

3. The historic section of the book is followed by an appendix (17-21) which has no formal connection with that which goes before. It records

a. the conquest (17, 18) of Laish by a portion of the tribe of Dan; and

b. the almost total extinction of the tribe of Benjamin by the other tribes, in consequence of their assisting the men of Gibeah (19-21). This section properly belongs to the period only a few years after the death of Joshua. It shows the religious and moral degeneracy of the people. The author of this book was most probably Samuel. The internal evidence both of the first sixteen chapters and of the appendix warrants this conclusion. It was probably composed during Saul's reign, or at the very beginning of David's. The words in Jud 18:30,31 imply that it was written after the taking of the ark by the Philistines, and after it was set up at Nob 1Sa 21:1-6 In David's reign the ark was at Gibeon 1Ch 16:39


Judgement Hall


Gr. praitorion Joh 18:28,33 19:9 Mt 27:27 "common hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mr 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (comp.) Ac 23:35 Pilate's official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part of the fortress of Antonia. The trial of our Lord was carried on in a room or office of the palace. The "whole band" spoken of by Mark were gathered together in the palace court.


Judgment Seat


Mt 27:19 a portable tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed according as the magistrate might direct, and from which judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed on a tesselated pavement, probably in front of the procurator's residence.




Judgments Of God


1. The secret decisions of God's will Ps 110:5 36:6

2. The revelations of his will Ex 21:1 De 6:20 Ps 119:7-175

3. The infliction of punishment on the wicked Ex 6:6 12:12 Eze 25:11 Re 16:7 such as is mentioned in Ge 7:1ff. Ge 19:24,25 Jud 1:6,7 Ac 5:1-10 etc.


Judgment, The final


the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day Mt 25:1ff. Ro 14:10,11 2Co 5:10 2Th 1:7-10 The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him Ac 17:31 Joh 5:22,27 Re 1:7 "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both respects." The persons to be judged are,

1. the whole race of Adam without a single exception Mt 25:31-46 1Co 15:51,52 Re 20:11-15

2. the fallen angels 2Pe 2:4 Jude 1:6


The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men,

1. The heathen by the law as written on their hearts Lu 12:47,48 Ro 2:12-16

2. The Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" Ro 2:12

3. Persons enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to them Mt 11:20-24 Joh 3:19


Then the secrets of all hearts will be brought to light 1Co 4:5 Lu 8:17 Lu 12:2,3 to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.  The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection Heb 9:27 Ac 17:31 As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as

1. Certain Ec 11:9

2. Universal 2Co 5:10

3. Righteous Ro 2:5

4. Decisive 1Co 15:52

5. Eternal as to its consequences Heb 6:2 let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace."




Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and one of Esau's wives Ge 26:34 elsewhere called Aholibamah Ge 36:2-14




A Christian woman at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutations Ro 16:15 supposed to be the wife of Philologus.




The centurion of the Augustan cohort, or the emperor's body-guard, in whose charge Paul was sent prisoner to Rome Ac 27:1,3,43 He entreated Paul "courteously, "showing in many ways a friendly regard for him.




Ro 16:7 a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends salutations along with Andronicus.




(Heb. rothem), called by the Arabs retem, and known as Spanish broom; ranked under the genus genista. It is a desert shrub, and abounds in many parts of Palestine. In the account of his journey from Akabah to Jerusalem, Dr. Robinson says: "This is the largest and most conspicuous shrub of these deserts, growing thickly in the water-courses and valleys. Our Arabs always selected the place of encampment, if possible, in a spot where it grew, in order to be sheltered by it at night from the wind; and during the day, when they often went on in advance of the camels, we found them not unfrequently sitting or sleeping under a bush of retem to shelter them from the sun. It was in this very desert, a day's journey from Beersheba, that the prophet Elijah lay down and slept beneath the same shrub" 1Ki 19:4,5 It afforded material for fuel, and also in cases of extremity for human food Ps 120:4 Job 30:4 One of the encampments in the wilderness of Paran is called Rithmah, i.e., "place of broom" Nu 33:18 "The Bedawin of Sinai still burn this very plant into a charcoal which throws out the most intense heat."




The principal deity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He was worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas was identified with this god by the Lycaonians Ac 14:12 because he was of stately and commanding presence, as they supposed Jupiter to be. There was a temple dedicated to this god outside the gates of Lystra Ac 14:13




Is rendering to every one that which is his due. It has been distinguished from equity in this respect, that while justice means merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.


Justice of God


That perfection of his nature whereby he is infinitely righteous in himself and in all he does, the righteousness of the divine nature exercised in his moral government. At first God imposes righteous laws on his creatures and executes them righteously.  Justice is not an optional product of his will, but an unchangeable principle of his very nature. His legislative justice is his requiring of his rational creatures conformity in all respects to the moral law. His rectoral or distributive justice is his dealing with his accountable creatures according to the requirements of the law in rewarding or punishing them Ps 89:14 In remunerative justice he distributes rewards Jas 1:12 2Ti 4:8 in vindictive or punitive justice he inflicts punishment on account of transgression 2Th 1:6 He cannot, as being infinitely righteous, do otherwise than regard and hate sin as intrinsically hateful and deserving of punishment.  "He cannot deny himself" 2Ti 2:13 His essential and eternal righteousness immutably determines him to visit every sin as such with merited punishment.




A forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.) of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of the justified. It is the act of a judge and not of a sovereign. The law is not relaxed or set aside, but is declared to be fulfilled in the strictest sense; and so the person justified is declared to be entitled to all the advantages and rewards arising from perfect obedience to the law Ro 5:1-10 It proceeds on the imputing or crediting to the believer by God himself of the perfect righteousness, active and passive, of his Representative and Surety, Jesus Christ Ro 10:3-9 Justification is not the forgiveness of a man without righteousness, but a declaration that he possesses a righteousness which perfectly and for ever satisfies the law, namely, Christ's righteousness 2Co 5:21 Ro 4:6-8 The sole condition on which this righteousness is imputed or credited to the believer is faith in or on the Lord Jesus Christ. Faith is called a "condition, "not because it possesses any merit, but only because it is the instrument, the only instrument by which the soul appropriates or apprehends Christ and his righteousness Ro 1:17 3:25,26 4:20-22 Php 3:8-11 Ga 2:16 The act of faith which thus secures our justification secures also at the same time our sanctification (q.v.); and thus the doctrine of justification by faith does not lead to licentiousness Ro 6:2-7 Good works, while not the ground, are the certain consequence of justification Ro 6:14 7:6






1. Another name for Joseph, surnamed Barsabas. He and Matthias are mentioned only in Ac 1:23 "They must have been among the earliest disciples of Jesus, and must have been faithful to the end; they must have been well known and esteemed among the brethren. What became of them afterwards, and what work they did, are entirely unknown" (Lindsay's Acts of the Apostles).

2. A Jewish proselyte at Corinth, in whose house, next door to the synagogue, Paul held meetings and preached after he left the synagogue Ac 18:7

3. A Jewish Christian, called Jesus, Paul's only fellow-labourer at Rome, where he wrote his Epistle to the Colossians Col 4:11




Extended, a Levitical city in the mountains or hill-country of Judah Jos 15:55 21:16 Its modern name is Yutta, a place about 5 1/2 miles south of Hebron. It is supposed to have been the residence of Zacharias and Elisabeth, and the birthplace of John the Baptist, and on this account is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims belonging to the Greek Church Lu 1:39