Pleasantness, one of the three sons of Caleb, the son of Jephunneh 1Ch 4:15




The beautiful.

1. The daughter of Lamech and Zillah Ge 4:22

2. The daughter of the king of Ammon, one of the wives of Solomon, the only one who appears to have borne him a son, viz., Rehoboam 1Ki 14:21,31

3. A city in the plain of Judah Jos 15:41 supposed by some to be identified with Na'aneh, some 5 miles south-east of Makkedah.




Pleasantness, a Syrian, the commander of the armies of Benhadad II. in the time of Joram, king of Israel. He was afflicted with leprosy; and when the little Hebrew slave-girl that waited on his wife told her of a prophet in Samaria who could cure her master, he obtained a letter from Benhadad and proceeded with it to Joram. The king of Israel suspected in this some evil design against him, and rent his clothes. Elisha the prophet hearing of this, sent for Naaman, and the strange interview which took place is recorded in 2Ki 5:1ff. The narrative contains all that is known of the Syrian commander. He was cured of his leprosy by dipping himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the word of Elisha. His cure is alluded to by our Lord Lu 4:27




The designation of Zophar, one of Job's three friends Job 2:11 11:1 so called from some place in Arabia, called Naamah probably.




A girl, the second of Ashur's two wives, of the tribe of Judah 1Ch 4:5,6




Youthful, a military chief in David's army 1Ch 11:37 called also Paarai 2Sa 23:35




Boyish, juvenile, a town in Ephraim between Bethel and Jericho 1Ch 7:28




Girl, a town on the boundary between Ephraim and Benjamin Jos 16:7 not far probably from Jericho, to the north 1Ch 7:28




Foolish, a descendant of Caleb who dwelt at Maon 1Sa 25:1ff. the modern Main, 7 miles south-east of Hebron. He was "very great, and he had 3,000 sheep and 1,000 goats...but the man was churlish and evil in his doings." During his wanderings David came into that district, and hearing that Nabal was about to shear his sheep, he sent ten of his young men to ask "whatsoever cometh unto thy hand for thy servants." Nabal insultingly resented the demand, saying, "Who is David, and who is the son of Jesse?" 1Sa 25:10,11 One of the shepherds that stood by and saw the reception David's messengers had met with, informed Abigail, Nabal's wife, who at once realized the danger that threatened her household. She forthwith proceeded to the camp of David, bringing with her ample stores of provisions 1Sa 25:18 She so courteously and persuasively pled her cause that David's anger was appeased, and he said to her, "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel which sent thee this day to meet me." On her return she found her husband incapable from drunkenness of understanding the state of matters, and not till the following day did she explain to him what had happened. He was stunned by a sense of the danger to which his conduct had exposed him. "His heart died within him, and he became as a stone." and about ten days after "the Lord smote Nabal that he died" 1Sa 25:37,38 Not long after David married Abigail (q.v.).




Fruits, "the Jezreelite, "was the owner of a portion of ground on the eastern slope of the hill of Jezreel 2Ki 9:25,26 This small "plat of ground" seems to have been all he possessed. It was a vineyard, and lay "hard by the palace of Ahab" 1Ki 21:1,2 who greatly coveted it. Naboth, however, refused on any terms to part with it to the king. He had inherited it from his fathers, and no Israelite could lawfully sell his property Le 25:23 Jezebel, Ahab's wife, was grievously offended at Naboth's refusal to part with his vineyard. By a crafty and cruel plot she compassed his death. His sons also shared his fate 2Ki 9:26 1Ki 21:19 She then came to Ahab and said, "Arise, take possession of the vineyard; for Naboth is not alive, but dead." Ahab arose and went forth into the garden which had so treacherously and cruelly been acquired, seemingly enjoying his new possession, when, lo, Elijah suddenly appeared before him and pronounced against him a fearful doom 1Ki 21:17-24 Jehu and Bidcar were with Ahab at this time, and so deeply were the words of Elijah imprinted on Jehu's memory that many years afterwards he refers to them 2Ki 9:26 and he was the chief instrument in inflicting this sentence on Ahab and Jezebel and all their house 2Ki 9:30-37 The house of Ahab was extinguished by him. Not one of all his great men and his kinsfolk and his priests did Jehu spare 2Ki 10:11 Ahab humbled himself at Elijah's words 1Ki 21:28,29 and therefore the prophecy was fulfilled not in his fate but in that of his son Joram 2Ki 9:25 The history of Naboth, compared with that of Ahab and Jezebel, furnishes a remarkable illustration of the law of a retributive providence, a law which runs through all history (comp.) Ps 109:17,18




Prepared, the owner of a thrashing-floor near which Uzzah was slain 2Sa 6:6 called also Chidon 1Ch 13:9




Liberal, generous.

1. The eldest of Aaron's four sons Ex 6:23 Nu 3:2 He with his brothers and their father were consecrated as priests of Jehovah Ex 28:1 He afterwards perished with Abihu for the sin of offering strange fire on the altar of burnt-offering Le 10:1,2 Nu 3:4 26:60

2. The son and successor of Jeroboam, the king of Israel 1Ki 14:20 While engaged with all Israel in laying siege to Gibbethon, a town of southern Dan Jos 19:44 a conspiracy broke out in his army, and he was slain by Baasha 1Ki 15:25-28 after a reign of two years (B.C. 955) The assassination of Nadab was followed by that of his whole house, and thus this great Ephraimite family became extinct 1Ki 15:29

3. One of the sons of Shammai in the tribe of Judah 1Ch 2:28,30




Illuminating, one of the ancestors of Christ in the maternal line Lu 3:25




Possession, or valley of God, one of the encampments of the Israelites in the wilderness Nu 21:19 on the confines of Moab. This is identified with the ravine of the Zerka M'ain, the ancient Callirhoe, the hot springs on the east of the Jordan, not far from the Dead Sea.




Pasture, a city in Zebulun on the border of Issachar Jos 19:15 the same as Nahalol Jud 1:30 It was given to the Levites. It has been by some identified with Malul in the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles from Nazareth.




Snorer, a Berothite, one of David's heroes, and armour-bearer of Joab 1Ch 11:39





1. King of the Ammonites in the time of Saul. The inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead having been exposed to great danger from Nahash, sent messengers to Gibeah to inform Saul of their extremity. He promptly responded to the call, and gathering together an army he marched against Nahash. "And it came to pass that they which remained were scattered, so that two of them [the Ammonites] were not left together" 1Sa 11:1-11

2. Another king of the Ammonites of the same name is mentioned, who showed kindness to David during his wanderings 2Sa 10:2 On his death David sent an embassy of sympathy to Hanun, his son and successor, at Rabbah Ammon, his capital. The grievous insult which was put upon these ambassadors led to a war against the Ammonites, who, with their allies the Syrians, were completely routed in a battle fought at "the entering in of the gate, " probably of Medeba 2Sa 10:6-14 Again Hadarezer rallied the Syrian host, which was totally destroyed by the Israelite army under Joab in a decisive battle fought at Helam 2Sa 10:17 near to Hamath 1Ch 18:3 "So the Syrians feared to help the children of Ammon any more" 2Sa 10:19

3. The father of Amasa, who was commander-in-chief of Abasolom's army 2Sa 17:25 Jesse's wife had apparently been first married to this man, to whom she bore Abigail and Zeruiah, who were thus David's sisters, but only on the mother's side 1Ch 2:16





1. One of the four sons of Reuel, the son of Esau Ge 36:13,17

2. A Kohathite Levite 1Ch 6:26

3. A Levite, one of the overseers of the sacred offerings of the temple 2Ch 31:13




Hidden, one of the twelve spies sent out to explore the land of Canaan Nu 13:14





1. The father of Terah, who was the father of Abraham Ge 11:22-25 Lu 3:34

2. A son of Terah, and elder brother of Abraham Ge 11:26,27 Jos 24:2 R.V. He married Milcah, the daughter of his brother Haran, and remained in the land of his nativity on the east of the river Euphrates at Haran Ge 11:27-32 A correspondence was maintained between the family of Abraham in Canaan and the relatives in the old ancestral home at Haran till the time of Jacob. When Jacob fled from Haran all intercourse between the two branches of the family came to an end Ge 31:55 His grand-daughter Rebekah became Isaac's wife Ge 24:67




Sorcerer, the son of Aminadab, and prince of the children of Judah at the time of the first numbering of the tribes in the wilderness Ex 6:23 His sister Elisheba was the wife of Aaron. He died in the wilderness Nu 26:64,65 His name occurs in the Greek form Naasson in the genealogy of Christ Mt 1:4 Lu 3:32




Consolation, the seventh of the so-called minor prophets, an Elkoshite. All we know of him is recorded in the book of his prophecies. He was probably a native of Galilee, and after the deportation of the ten tribes took up his residence in Jerusalem. Others think that Elkosh was the name of a place on the east bank of the Tigris, and that Nahum dwelt there.


Nahum, Book of


1. Nahum prophesied, according to some, in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz (B.C. 743) Others, however, think that his prophecies are to be referred to the latter half of the reign of Hezekiah (about B.C. 709) This is the more probable opinion, internal evidences leading to that conclusion. Probably the book was written in Jerusalem (soon after B.C.  709) where he witnessed the invasion of Sennacherib and the destruction of his host 2Ki 19:35

2. The subject of this prophecy is the approaching complete and final destruction of Nineveh, the capital of the great and at that time flourishing Assyrian empire. Assur-bani-pal was at the height of his glory.  Nineveh was a city of vast extent, and was then the centre of the civilzation and commerce of the world, a "bloody city all full of lies and robbery" Na 3:1 for it had robbed and plundered all the neighbouring nations. It was strongly fortified on every side, bidding defiance to every enemy; yet it was to be utterly destroyed as a punishment for the great wickedness of its inhabitants.  Jonah had already uttered his message of warning, and Nahum was followed by Zephaniah, who also predicted Zep 2:4-15 the destruction of the city, predictions which were remarkably fulfilled (B.C. 625) when Nineveh was destroyed apparently by fire, and the Assyrian empire came to an end, an event which changed the face of Asia.






For fastening.

1. Hebrew yathed, "piercing, "a peg or nail of any material Eze 15:3 more especially a tent-peg Ex 27:19 35:18 38:20 with one of which Jael (q.v.) pierced the temples of Sisera Jud 4:21,22 This word is also used metaphorically Zec 10:4 for a prince or counsellor, just as "the battle-bow" represents a warrior.

2. Masmer, a "point, "the usual word for a nail. The words of the wise are compared to "nails fastened by the masters of assemblies" Ec 12:11 A.V. The Revised Version reads, "as nails well fastened are the words of the masters, "etc. Others (as Plumptre) read, "as nails fastened are the masters of assemblies" (comp.) Isa 22:23 Ezr 9:8 David prepared nails for the temple 1Ch 22:3 2Ch 3:9

3. The nails by which our Lord was fixed to the cross are mentioned Joh 20:25 Col 2:14

4. Nail of the finger (Heb. tsipporen, "scraping"). To "pare the nails" is in De 21:12 (marg., "make, "or "dress, "or "suffer to grow") one of the signs of purification, separation from former heathenism (comp.) Le 14:8 Nu 8:7 In Jer 17:1 this word is rendered "point."




(from Heb. nain, "green pastures, ""lovely"), the name of a town near the gate of which Jesus raised to life a widow's son Lu 7:11-17 It is identified with the village called Nein, standing on the north-western slope of Jebel ed-Duhy(=the "hill Moreh" "Little hermon"), about 4 miles from Tabor and 25 southwest of Capernaum. At the foot of the slope on which it stands is the great plain of Esdraelon. This was the first miracle of raising the dead our Lord had wrought, and it excited great awe and astonishment among the people.





Dwellings, the name given to the prophetical college established by Samuel near Ramah. It consisted of a cluster of separate dwellings, and hence its name. David took refuge here when he fled from Saul 1Sa 19:18,19,22,23 and here he passed a few weeks in peace (comp.) Ps 11:1ff. It was probably the common residence of the "sons of the prophets."




This word denotes

1. absolute nakedness Ge 2:25 Job 1:21 Ec 5:15 Mic 1:8 Am 2:16

2. being poorly clad Isa 58:7 Jas 2:15 It denotes also

3. the state of one who has laid aside his loose outer garment (Lat. nudus), and appears clothed only in a long tunic or under robe worn next the skin 1Sa 19:24 Isa 47:3 comp. Mr 14:52 Joh 21:7 It is used figuratively, meaning "being discovered" or "made manifest" Job 26:6 Heb 4:13 In Ex 32:25 the expression "the people were naked" (A.V.) is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version "the people were broken loose", i.e., had fallen into a state of lawlessness and insubordination. In 2Ch 28:19 the words "he made Judah naked" (A.V.), but Revised Version "he had dealt wantonly in Judah, "mean "he had permitted Judah to break loose from all the restraints of religion."




The lovable; my delight, the wife of Elimelech, and mother of Mahlon and Chilion, and mother-in-law of Ruth Ru 1:2,20,21 2:1 Elimelech and his wife left the district of Bethlehem-Judah, and found a new home in the uplands of Moab. In course of time he died, as also his two sons Mahlon and Chilion, who had married women of Moab, and three widows were left mourning the loss of their husbands. Naomi longs to return now to her own land, to Bethlehem. One of her widowed daughters-in-law, Ruth, accompanies her, and is at length married to Boaz (q.v.).




Refresher, one of the sons of Ishmael Ge 25:15 1Ch 1:31 He was the father of an Arab tribe.




My wrestling, the fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid Ge 30:8 When Jacob went down into Egypt, Naphtali had four sons Ge 46:24 Little is known of him as an individual.


Naphtali, Mount


The mountainous district of Naphtali Jos 20:7


Naphtali, Tribe of


On this tribe Jacob pronounced the patriarchal blessing, "Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words" Ge 49:21 It was intended thus to set forth under poetic imagery the future character and history of the tribe. At the time of the Exodus this tribe numbered 53,400 adult males Nu 1:43 but at the close of the wanderings they numbered only 45,400 Nu 26:48-50 Along with Dan and Asher they formed "the camp of Dan, "under a common standard Nu 2:25-31 occupying a place during the march on the north side of the tabernacle. The possession assigned to this tribe is set forth in Jos 19:32-39 It lay in the north-eastern corner of the land, bounded on the east by the Jordan and the lakes of Merom and Galilee, and on the north it extended far into Coele-Syria, the valley between the two Lebanon ranges. It comprehended a greater variety of rich and beautiful scenery and of soil and climate than fell to the lot of any other tribe. The territory of Naphtali extended to about 800 square miles, being the double of that of Issachar. The region around Kedesh, one of its towns, was originally called Galil, a name afterwards given to the whole northern division of Canaan. A large number of foreigners settled here among the mountains, and hence it was called "Galilee of the Gentiles" (q.v.), Mt 4:15,16 The southern portion of Naphtali has been called the "Garden of Palestine." It was of unrivalled fertility. It was the principal scene of our Lord's public ministry. Here most of his parables were spoken and his miracles wrought. This tribe was the first to suffer from the invasion of Benhadad, king of Syria, in the reigns of Baasha, king of Israel, and Asa, king of Judah 1Ki 15:20 2Ch 16:4 In the reign of Pekah, king of Israel, the Assyrians under Tiglath-pileser swept over the whole north of Israel, and carried the people into captivity 2Ki 15:29 Thus the kingdom of Israel came to an end (B.C. 722) Naphtali is now almost wholly a desert, the towns of Tiberias, on the shore of the Lake of Galilee, and Safed being the only places in it of any importance.




A Hamitic tribe descended from Mizraim Ge 10:13 Others identify this word with Napata, the name of the city and territory on the southern frontier of Mizraim, the modern Meroe, at the great bend of the Nile at Soudan. This city was the royal residence, it is said, of Queen Candace Ac 8:27 Here there are extensive and splendid ruins.




(Gr. soudarion, Joh 11:44 20:7 Lat. sudarium, a "sweat-cloth"), a cloth for wiping the sweat from the face. But the word is used of a wrapper to fold money in Lu 19:20 and as an article of dress, a "handkerchief" worn on the head Ac 19:12




Daffodil, a Roman whom Paul salutes Ro 16:11 He is supposed to have been the private secretary of the emperor Claudius. This is, however, quite uncertain.





1. A prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon 2Ch 9:29 He is first spoken of in connection with the arrangements David made for the building of the temple 2Sa 7:2,3,17 and next appears as the reprover of David on account of his sin with Bathsheba 2Sa 12:1-14 He was charged with the education of Solomon 2Sa 12:25 at whose inauguration to the throne he took a prominent part 1Ki 1:8,10,11,22-45 His two sons, Zabad 1Ch 2:36 and Azariah 1Ki 4:5 occupied places of honour at the king's court. He last appears in assisting David in reorganizing the public worship 2Ch 29:25 He seems to have written a life of David, and also a life of Solomon 1Ch 29:29 2Ch 9:29

2. A son of David, by Bathsheba 2Sa 5:14 whose name appears in the genealogy of Mary, the mother of our Lord Lu 3:31

3. Ezr 8:16




Given or gift of God, one of our Lord's disciples, "of Cana in Galilee" Joh 21:2 He was "an Israelite indeed, in whom was no guile" Joh 1:47,48 His name occurs only in the Gospel of John, who in his list of the disciples never mentions Bartholomew, with whom he has consequently been identified. He was one of those to whom the Lord showed himself alive after his resurrection, at the Sea of Tiberias.


Nativity of Christ


The birth of our Lord took place at the time and place predicted by the prophets Ge 49:10 Isa 7:14 Jer 31:15 Mic 5:2 Hag 2:6-9 Da 9:24,25 Joseph and Mary were providentially led to go up to Bethlehem at this period, and there Christ was born Mt 2:1,6 Lu 2:1,7 The exact year or month or day of his birth cannot, however, now be exactly ascertained. We know, however, that it took place in the "fulness of the time" Ga 4:4 i.e., at the fittest time in the world's history. Chronologists are now generally agreed that the year 4 before the Christian era was the year of Christ's nativity, and consequently that he was about four years old in the year 1 A.D.


Naughty Figs


Jer 24:2 "The bad figs may have been such either from having decayed, and thus been reduced to a rotten condition, or as being the fruit of the sycamore, which contains a bitter juice" (Tristram, Nat.  Hist.). The inferiority of the fruit is here referred to as an emblem of the rejected Zedekiah and his people.




This epithet (Gr. Nazaraios) is applied to Christ only once Mt 2:23 In all other cases the word is rendered "of Nazareth" Mr 1:24 10:47 14:67 etc. When this Greek designation was at first applied to our Lord, it was meant simply to denote the place of his residence. In course of time the word became a term of reproach. Thus the word "Nazarene" carries with it an allusion to those prophecies which speak of Christ as "despised of men" Isa 53:3 Some, however, think that in this name there is an allusion to the Hebrew _netser_, which signifies a branch or sprout. It is so applied to the Messiah Isa 11:1 i.e., he whom the prophets called the _Netse_, the "Branch." The followers of Christ were called "the sect of Nazarenes" Ac 24:5 All over Palestine and Syria this name is still given to Christians.






Separated, generally supposed to be the Greek form of the Hebrew _netser_, a "shoot" or "sprout." Some, however, think that the name of the city must be connected with the name of the hill behind it, from which one of the finest prospects in Palestine is obtained, and accordingly they derive it from the Hebrew _notserah_, i.e., one guarding or watching, thus designating the hill which overlooks and thus guards an extensive region. This city is not mentioned in the Old Testament. It was the home of Joseph and Mary Lu 2:39 and here the angel announced to the Virgin the birth of the Messiah Lu 1:26-28 Here Jesus grew up from his infancy to manhood Lu 4:16 and here he began his public ministry in the synagogue Mt 13:54 at which the people were so offended that they sought to cast him down from the precipice whereon their city was built Lu 4:29 Twice they expelled him from their borders Lu 4:16-29 Mt 13:54-58 and he finally retired from the city, where he did not many mighty works because of their unbelief Mt 13:58 and took up his residence in Capernaum. Nazareth is situated among the southern ridges of Lebanon, on the steep slope of a hill, about 14 miles from the Sea of Galilee and about 6 west from Mount Tabor. It is identified with the modern village en-Nazirah, of six or ten thousand inhabitants. It lies "as in a hollow cup" lower down upon the hill than the ancient city. The main road for traffic between Egypt and the interior of Asia passed by Nazareth near the foot of Tabor, and thence northward to Damascus. It is supposed from the words of Nathanael in Joh 1:46 that the city of Nazareth was held in great disrepute, either because, it is said, the people of Galilee were a rude and less cultivated class, and were largely influenced by the Gentiles who mingled with them, or because of their lower type of moral and religious character. But there seems to be no sufficient reason for these suppositions. The Jews believed that, according to Mic 5:2 the birth of the Messiah would take place at Bethlehem, and nowhere else.  Nathanael held the same opinion as his countrymen, and believed that the great "good" which they were all expecting could not come from Nazareth. This is probably what Nathanael meant. Moreover, there does not seem to be any evidence that the inhabitants of Galilee were in any respect inferior, or that a Galilean was held in contempt, in the time of our Lord. (See Dr. Merrill's Galilee in the Time of Christ.) The population of this city (now about 10,000) in the time of Christ probably amounted to 15,000 or 20,000 souls. "The so-called 'Holy House' is a cave under the Latin church, which appears to have been originally a tank. The 'brow of the hill',site of the attempted precipitation, is probably the northern cliff: the traditional site has been shown since the middle ages at some distance to the south. None of the traditional sites are traceable very early, and they have no authority. The name Nazareth perhaps means 'a watch tower' (now en-Nasrah), but is connected in the New Testament with Netzer, 'a branch' Isa 4:2 Jer 23:5 Zec 3:8 6:12 Mt 2:23 Nazarene being quite a different word from Nazarite."




(Heb. form Nazirite), the name of such Israelites as took on them the vow prescribed in Nu 6:2-21 The word denotes generally one who is separated from others and consecrated to God. Although there is no mention of any Nazarite before Samson, yet it is evident that they existed before the time of Moses. The vow of a Nazarite involved these three things,

1. abstinence from wine and strong drink,

2. refraining from cutting the hair off the head during the whole period of the continuance of the vow, and

3. the avoidance of contact with the dead.


When the period of the continuance of the vow came to an end, the Nazarite had to present himself at the door of the sanctuary with

1. a he lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering,

2. a ewe lamb of the first year for a sin-offering, and

3. a ram for a peace-offering.


After these sacrifices were offered by the priest, the Nazarite cut off his hair at the door and threw it into the fire under the peace-offering. For some reason, probably in the midst of his work at Corinth, Paul took on himself the Nazarite vow. This could only be terminated by his going up to Jerusalem to offer up the hair which till then was to be left uncut. But it seems to have been allowable for persons at a distance to cut the hair, which was to be brought up to Jerusalem, where the ceremony was completed. This Paul did at Cenchrea just before setting out on his voyage into Syria Ac 18:18 On another occasion Ac 21:23-26 at the feast of Pentecost, Paul took on himself again the Nazarite vow. "The ceremonies involved took a longer time than Paul had at his disposal, but the law permitted a man to share the vow if he could find companions who had gone through the prescribed ceremonies, and who permitted him to join their company. This permission was commonly granted if the new comer paid all the fees required from the whole company (fee to the Levite for cutting the hair and fees for sacrifices), and finished the vow along with the others. Four Jewish Christians were performing the vow, and would admit Paul to their company, provided he paid their expenses. Paul consented, paid the charges, and when the last seven days of the vow began he went with them to live in the temple, giving the usual notice to the priests that he had joined in regular fashion, was a sharer with the four men, and that his vow would end with theirs. Nazarites retired to the temple during the last period of seven days, because they could be secure there against any accidental defilement" (Lindsay's Acts). As to the duration of a Nazarite's vow, every one was left at liberty to fix his own time. There is mention made in Scripture of only three who were Nazarites for life, Samson, Samuel, and John the Baptist Jud 13:4,5 1Sa 1:11 Lu 1:15 In its ordinary form, however, the Nazarite's vow lasted only thirty, and at most one hundred, days. This institution was a symbol of a life devoted to God and separated from all sin, a holy life.






Shaking, or settlement, or descent, a town on the east side of Zebulun, not far from Rimmon Jos 19:13




New city, a town in Thrace at which Paul first landed in Europe Ac 16:11 It was the sea-port of the inland town of Philippi, which was distant about 10 miles. From this port Paul embarked on his last journey to Jerusalem Ac 20:6 It is identified with the modern Turco-Grecian Kavalla.





1. Ishmael's eldest son Ge 25:13 and the prince of an Israelitish tribe Ge 25:16 He had a sister, Mahalath, who was one of Esau's wives Ge 28:9 36:3

2. The name of the Ishmaelite tribe descended from the above Ge 25:13,18 The "rams of Nebaioth" Isa 60:7 are the gifts which these wandering tribes of the desert would consecrate to God.




Wickedness in secret, Ne 11:34 probably the village of Beit Nebala, about 4 miles north of Lydda.




Sight; aspect, the father of Jeroboam, the king of Israel 1Ki 11:26 etc.




Proclaimer; prophet.

1. A Chaldean god whose worship was introduced into Assyria by Pul Isa 46:1 Jer 48:1 To this idol was dedicated the great temple whose ruins are still seen at Birs Nimrud. A statue of Nebo found at Calah, where it was set up by Pul, king of Assyria, is now in the British Museum.

2. A mountain in the land of Moab from which Moses looked for the first and the last time on the Promised Land De 32:49 34:1 It has been identified with Jebel Nebah, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, near its northern end, and about 5 miles south-west of Heshbon. It was the summit of the ridge of Pisgah (q.v.), which was a part of the range of the "mountains of Abarim." It is about 2,643 feet in height, but from its position it commands a view of Western Palestine. Close below it are the plains of Moab, where Balaam, and afterwards Moses, saw the tents of Israel spread along.

3. A town on the east of Jordan which was taken possession of and rebuilt by the tribe of Reuben Nu 32:3,38 1Ch 5:8 It was about 8 miles south of Heshbon.

4. The "children of Nebo" Ezr 2:29 Ne 7:33 were of those who returned from Babylon. It was a town in Benjamin, probably the modern Beit Nubah, about 7 miles north-west of Hebron.




In the Babylonian orthography Nabu-kudur-uzur, which means "Nebo, protect the crown!" or the "frontiers." In an inscription he styles himself "Nebo's favourite." He was the son and successor of Nabopolassar, who delivered Babylon from its dependence on Assyria and laid Nineveh in ruins. He was the greatest and most powerful of all the Babylonian kings. He married the daughter of Cyaxares, and thus the Median and Babylonian dynasties were united. Necho II., the king of Egypt, gained a victory over the Assyrians at Carchemish.


This secured to Egypt the possession of the Syrian provinces of Assyria, including Palestine. The remaining provinces of the Assyrian empire were divided between Babylonia and Media. But Nabopolassar was ambitious of reconquering from Necho the western provinces of Syria, and for this purpose he sent his son with a powerful army westward Da 1:1 The Egyptians met him at Carchemish, where a furious battle was fought, resulting in the complete rout of the Egyptians, who were driven back Jer 46:2-12 and Syria and Phoenicia brought under the sway of Babylon (B.C. 606) From that time "the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land" 2Ki 24:7 Nebuchadnezzar also subdued the whole of Palestine, and took Jerusalem, carrying away captive a great multitude of the Jews, among whom were Daniel and his companions Da 1:1,2 Jer 27:19 40:1 Three years after this, Jehoiakim, who had reigned in Jerusalem as a Babylonian vassal, rebelled against the oppressor, trusting to help from Egypt 2Ki 24:1 This led Nebuchadnezzar to march an army again to the conquest of Jerusalem, which at once yielded to him (B.C. 598) A third time he came against it, and deposed Jehoiachin, whom he carried into Babylon, with a large portion of the population of the city, and the sacred vessels of the temple, placing Zedekiah on the throne of Judah in his stead. He also, heedless of the warnings of the prophet, entered into an alliance with Egypt, and rebelled against Babylon.  This brought about the final siege of the city, which was at length taken and utterly destroyed (B.C. 586) Zedekiah was taken captive, and had his eyes put out by order of the king of Babylon, who made him a prisoner for the remainder of his life. An onyx cameo, now in the museum of Florence, bears on it an arrow-headed inscription, which is certainly ancient and genuine. The helmeted profile is said (Schrader) to be genuine also, but it is more probable that it is the portrait of a usurper in the time of Darius (Hystaspes), called Nidinta-Bel, who took the name of "Nebuchadrezzar." The inscription has been thus translated:, "In honour of Merodach, his lord, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in his lifetime had this made." A clay tablet, now in the British Museum, bears the following inscription, the only one as yet found which refers to his wars: "In the thirty-seventh year of Nebuchadnezzar, king of the country of Babylon, he went to Egypt [Misr] to make war.  Amasis, king of Egypt, collected [his army], and marched and spread abroad." Thus were fulfilled the words of the prophet Jer 46:13-26 Eze 29:2-20 Having completed the subjugation of Phoenicia, and inflicted chastisement on Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar now set himself to rebuild and adorn the city of Babylon Da 4:30 and to add to the greatness and prosperity of his kingdom by constructing canals and aqueducts and reservoirs surpassing in grandeur and magnificence everything of the kind mentioned in history Da 2:37 He is represented as a "king of kings, "ruling over a vast kingdom of many provinces, with a long list of officers and rulers under him, "princes, governors, captains, "etc.  Da 3:2,3,27 He may, indeed, be said to have created the mighty empire over which he ruled. "Modern research has shown that Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest monarch that Babylon, or perhaps the East generally, ever produced. He must have possessed an enormous command of human labour, nine-tenths of Babylon itself, and nineteen-twentieths of all the other ruins that in almost countless profusion cover the land, are composed of bricks stamped with his name. He appears to have built or restored almost every city and temple in the whole country. His inscriptions give an elaborate account of the immense works which he constructed in and about Babylon itself, abundantly illustrating the boast, 'Is not this great Babylon which I have build?'"Rawlinson, Hist. Illustrations. After the incident of the "burning fiery furnace" Da 3:1ff. into which the three Hebrew confessors were cast, Nebuchadnezzar was afflicted with some peculiar mental aberration as a punishment for his pride and vanity, probably the form of madness known as lycanthropy (i.e, "the change of a man into a wolf"). A remarkable confirmation of the Scripture narrative is afforded by the recent discovery of a bronze door-step, which bears an inscription to the effect that it was presented by Nebuchadnezzar to the great temple at Borsippa as a votive offering on account of his recovery from a terrible illness.

See DANIEL He survived his recovery for some years, and died B.C. 562 in the eighty-third or eighty-fourth year of his age, after a reign of forty-three years, and was succeeded by his son Evil-merodach, who, after a reign of two years, was succeeded by Neriglissar (559-555) who was succeeded by Nabonadius (555-538) at the close of whose reign (less than a quarter of a century after the death of Nebuchadnezzar) Babylon fell under Cyrus at the head of the combined armies of Media and Persia. "I have examined, "says Sir H.  Rawlinson, "the bricks belonging perhaps to a hundred different towns and cities in the neighbourhood of Baghdad, and I never found any other legend than that of Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon." Nine-tenths of all the bricks amid the ruins of Babylon are stamped with his name.




=Nebuchadnezzar Jer 21:2,7 22:25 24:1 etc., a nearer approach to the correct spelling of the word.




Adorer of Nebo, or Nebo saves me, the "Rabsaris, "or chief chamberlain, of the court of Babylon. He was one of those whom the king sent to release Jeremiah from prison in Jerusalem Jer 39:13




"the captain of the guard, "in rank next to the king, who appears prominent in directing affairs at the capture of Jerusalem 2Ki 25:8-20 Jer 39:11 40:2-5 He showed kindness toward Jeremiah, as commanded by Nebuchadnezzar Jer 40:1 Five years after this he again came to Jerusalem and carried captive seven hundred and forty-five more Jews.


Necho II


An Egyptian king, the son and successor of Psammetichus (B.C. 610) the contemporary of Josiah, king of Judah. For some reason he proclaimed war against the king of Assyria. He led forth a powerful army and marched northward, but was met by the king of Judah at Megiddo, who refused him a passage through his territory. Here a fierce battle was fought and Josiah was slain 2Ch 35:20-24 Possibly, as some suppose, Necho may have brought his army by sea to some port to the north of Dor (comp.) Jos 11:2 12:23 a Phoenician town at no great distance from Megiddo. After this battle Necho marched on to Carchemish (q.v.), where he met and conquered the Assyrian army, and thus all the Syrian provinces, including Palestine, came under his dominion. On his return march he deposed Jehoahaz, who had succeeded his father Josiah, and made Eliakim, Josiah's eldest son, whose name he changed into Jehoiakim, king. Jehoahaz he carried down into Egypt, where he died 2Ki 23:31 2Ch 36:1-4 Four years after this conquest Necho again marched to the Euphrates; but here he was met and his army routed by the Chaldeans (B.C. 606) under Nebuchadnezzar, who drove the Egyptians back, and took from them all the territory they had conquered, from the Euphrates unto the "river of Egypt" Jer 46:2 2Ki 24:7,8 Soon after this Necho died, and was succeeded by his son, Psammetichus II.






Used sometimes figuratively.

1. To "lay down the neck" Ro 16:4 is to hazard one's life.

2. Threatenings of coming judgments are represented by the prophets by their laying bands upon the people's necks De 28:48 Isa 10:27 Jer 27:2

3. Conquerors put their feet on the necks of their enemies as a sign of their subjection Jos 10:24 2Sa 22:41




De 18:11 i.e., "one who interrogates the dead, "as the word literally means, with the view of discovering the secrets of futurity (comp.) 1Sa 28:7






Moved of Jehovah, one of the sons of Jeconiah 1Ch 3:18




Used only in the proverb, "to pass through a needle's eye" Mt 19:24 Mr 10:25 Lu 18:25 Some interpret the expression as referring to the side gate, close to the principal gate, usually called the "eye of a needle" in the East; but it is rather to be taken literally. The Hebrew females were skilled in the use of the needle Ex 28:39 26:36 Jud 5:30




In the title of Ps 61:1 denotes the music of stringed instruments 1Sa 16:16 Isa 38:20 It is the singular form of Neginoth.




i.e., songs with instrumental accompaniment, found in the titles of Ps 4:1 6:1 54:1 55:1 67:1 76:1 rendered "stringed instruments, " Hab 3:19 A.V. It denotes all kinds of stringed instruments, as the "harp, ""psaltery, ""viol, "etc. The "chief musician on Neginoth" is the leader of that part of the temple choir which played on stringed instruments.




The name given to a false prophet Shemaiah, who went with the captives to Babylon Jer 29:24,31,32 The origin of the name is unknown. It is rendered in the marg, "dreamer."




Comforted by Jehovah.

1. Ezr 2:2 Ne 7:7

2. Ne 3:16

3. The son of Hachaliah Ne 1:1 and probably of the tribe of Judah. His family must have belonged to Jerusalem Ne 2:3 He was one of the "Jews of the dispersion, "and in his youth was appointed to the important office of royal cup-bearer at the palace of Shushan. The king, Artaxerxes Longimanus, seems to have been on terms of friendly familiarity with his attendant. Through his brother Hanani, and perhaps from other sources Ne 1:2 2:3 he heard of the mournful and desolate condition of the Holy City, and was filled with sadness of heart. For many days he fasted and mourned and prayed for the place of his fathers' sepulchres. At length the king observed his sadness of countenance and asked the reason of it. Nehemiah explained it all to the king, and obtained his permission to go up to Jerusalem and there to act as _tirshatha_, or governor of Judea. He went up in the spring of B.C. 446 (eleven years after Ezra), with a strong escort supplied by the king, and with letters to all the pashas of the provinces through which he had to pass, as also to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, directing him to assist Nehemiah. On his arrival he set himself to survey the city, and to form a plan for its restoration; a plan which he carried out with great skill and energy, so that the whole was completed in about six months. He remained in Judea for thirteen years as governor, carrying out many reforms, notwithstanding much opposition that he encountered Ne 13:11 He built up the state on the old lines, "supplementing and completing the work of Ezra, "and making all arrangements for the safety and good government of the city. At the close of this important period of his public life, he returned to Persia to the service of his royal master at Shushan or Ecbatana. Very soon after this the old corrupt state of things returned, showing the worthlessness to a large extent of the professions that had been made at the feast of the dedication of the walls of the city Ne 12:1ff. See EZRA 24294 Malachi now appeared among the people with words of stern reproof and solemn warning; and Nehemiah again returned from Persia (after an absence of some two years), and was grieved to see the widespread moral degeneracy that had taken place during his absence. He set himself with vigour to rectify the flagrant abuses that had sprung up, and restored the orderly administration of public worship and the outward observance of the law of Moses. Of his subsequent history we know nothing. Probably he remained at his post as governor till his death (about B.C. 413) in a good old age. The place of his death and burial is, however, unknown. "He resembled Ezra in his fiery zeal, in his active spirit of enterprise, and in the piety of his life: but he was of a bluffer and a fiercer mood; he had less patience with transgressors; he was a man of action rather than a man of thought, and more inclined to use force than persuasion. His practical sagacity and high courage were very markedly shown in the arrangement with which he carried through the rebuilding of the wall and balked the cunning plans of the 'adversaries.' The piety of his heart, his deeply religious spirit and constant sense of communion with and absolute dependence upon God, are strikingly exhibited, first in the long prayer recorded in ch. Neh 1:5-11 and secondly and most remarkably in what have been called his 'interjectional prayers',those short but moving addresses to Almighty God which occur so frequently in his writings, the instinctive outpouring of a heart deeply moved, but ever resting itself upon God, and looking to God alone for aid in trouble, for the frustration of evil designs, and for final reward and acceptance" (Rawlinson). Nehemiah was the last of the governors sent from the Persian court. Judea after this was annexed to the satrapy of Coele-Syria, and was governed by the high priest under the jurisdiction of the governor of Syria, and the internal government of the country became more and more a hierarchy.


Nehemiah, Book of


1. The author of this book was no doubt Nehemiah himself. There are portions of the book written in the first person Ne 1:1-11 Ne 12:27-47 13:1-31 But there are also portions of it in which Nehemiah is spoken of in the third person Ne 8:1-10:39 It is supposed that these portions may have been written by Ezra; of this, however, there is no distinct evidence. These portions had their place assigned them in the book, there can be no doubt, by Nehemiah. He was the responsible author of the whole book, with the exception of Ne 12:11,22,23.

2. The date at which the book was written was probably about B.C. 431 when Nehemiah had returned the second time to Jerusalem after his visit to Persia.

3. The book, which may historically be regarded as a continuation of the book of Ezra, consists of four parts.

a. An account of the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem, and of the register Nehemiah had found of those who had returned from Babylon (ch. 1-7)

b. An account of the state of religion among the Jews during this time (8-10).

c. Increase of the inhabitants of Jerusalem; the census of the adult male population, and names of the chiefs, together with lists of priests and Levites (11:1-12:1-26).

d. Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, the arrangement of the temple officers, and the reforms carried out by Nehemiah Neh 12:27-13:31 This book closes the history of the Old Testament. Malachi the prophet was contemporary with Nehemiah.




Only in the title of Ps 5:1 It is probably derived from a root meaning "to bore, ""perforate, "and hence denotes perforated wind instruments of all kinds. The psalm may be thus regarded as addressed to the conductor of the temple choir which played on flutes and such-like instruments.




Copper, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, and the wife of Jehoiakin 2Ki 24:8 king of Judah.




Of copper; a brazen thing a name of contempt given to the serpent Moses had made in the wilderness Nu 21:8 and which Hezekiah destroyed because the children of Israel began to regard it as an idol and "burn incense to it." The lapse of nearly one thousand years had invested the "brazen serpent" with a mysterious sanctity; and in order to deliver the people from their infatuation, and impress them with the idea of its worthlessness, Hezekiah called it, in contempt, "Nehushtan, "a brazen thing, a mere piece of brass 2Ki 18:4




Dwelling-place of God, a town in the territory of Asher, near its southern border Jos 19:27 It has been identified with the ruin Y'anin, near the outlet of the Wady esh Sha-ghur, less than 2 miles north of Kabul, and 16 miles east of Caesarea.




Cavern, a town on the boundary of Naphtali Jos 19:33 It has with probability, been identified with Seiyadeh, nearly 2 miles east of Bessum, a ruin half way between Tiberias and Mount Tabor.




Day of God.

1. One of Simeon's five sons 1Ch 4:24 called also Jemuel Ge 46:10

2. A Reubenite, a son of Eliab, and brother of Dathan and Abiram Nu 26:9




Ge 6:4 Nu 13:33 (R.V.), giants, the Hebrew word left untranslated by the Revisers, the name of one of the Canaanitish tribes. The Revisers have, however, translated the Hebrew gibborim, in Ge 6:4 "mighty men."




Opened, a fountain and a stream issuing from it on the border between Judah and Benjamin Jos 15:8,9 18:15 It has been identified with 'Ain Lifta, a spring about 2 1/2 miles north-west of Jerusalem. Others, however, have identified it with 'Ain' Atan, on the south-west of Bethlehem, whence water is conveyed through "Pilate's aqueduct" to the Haram area at Jerusalem.




Light, the father of Kish 1Ch 8:33 1Sa 14:51 should be read, "Kish, the father of Saul, and Ner, the father of Abner, were the sons of Abiel." And hence this Kish and Ner were brothers, and Saul and Abner were first cousins (comp.) 1Ch 9:36




A Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutation Ro 16:15




The great dog; that is, lion, one of the chief gods of the Assyrians and Babylonians 2Ki 17:30 the god of war and hunting. He is connected with Cutha as its tutelary deity.




Nergal, protect the king!

1. One of the "princes of the king of Babylon who accompanied him in his last expedition against Jerusalem" Jer 39:3,13

2. Another of the "princes, "who bore the title of "Rabmag." He was one of those who were sent to release Jeremiah from prison Jer 39:13 by "the captain of the guard." He was a Babylonian grandee of high rank. From profane history and the inscriptions, we are led to conclude that he was the Neriglissar who murdered Evil-merodach, the son of Nebuchadnezzar, and succeeded him on the throne of Babylon (B.C. 559) He was married to a daughter of Nebuchadnezzar. The ruins of a palace, the only one on the right bank of the Euphrates, bear inscriptions denoting that it was built by this king. He was succeeded by his son, a mere boy, who was murdered after a reign of some nine months by a conspiracy of the nobles, one of whom, Nabonadius, ascended the vacant throne, and reigned for a period of seventeen years (B.C.  555) at the close of which period Babylon was taken by Cyrus.  Belshazzar, who comes into notice in connection with the taking of Babylon, was by some supposed to have been the same as Nabonadius, who was called Nebuchadnezzar's son Da 5:11,18,22 because he had married his daughter. But it is known from the inscriptions that Nabonadius had a son called Belshazzar, who may have been his father's associate on the throne at the time of the fall of Babylon, and who therefore would be the grandson of Nebuchadnezzar. The Jews had only one word, usually rendered "father, "to represent also such a relationship as that of "grandfather" or "great-grandfather."




Occurs only in the superscription (which is probably spurious, and is altogether omitted in the R.V.) to the Second Epistle to Timothy. He became emperor of Rome when he was about seventeen years of age (A.D. 54 and soon began to exhibit the character of a cruel tyrant and heathen debauchee. In May A.D. 64 a terrible conflagration broke out in Rome, which raged for six days and seven nights, and totally destroyed a great part of the city. The guilt of this fire was attached to him at the time, and the general verdict of history accuses him of the crime. "Hence, to suppress the rumour, "says Tacitus (Annals, xv. 44) "he falsely charged with the guilt, and punished with the most exquisite tortures, the persons commonly called Christians, who are hated for their enormities. Christus, the founder of that name, was put to death as a criminal by Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea, in the reign of Tiberius; but the pernicious superstition, repressed for a time, broke out again, not only throughout Judea, where the mischief originated, but through the city of Rome also, whither all things horrible and disgraceful flow, from all quarters, as to a common receptacle, and where they are encouraged. Accordingly, first three were seized, who confessed they were Christians. Next, on their information, a vast multitude were convicted, not so much on the charge of burning the city as of hating the human race. And in their deaths they were also made the subjects of sport; for they were covered with the hides of wild beasts and worried to death by dogs, or nailed to crosses, or set fire to, and, when day declined, burned to serve for nocturnal lights. Nero offered his own gardens for that spectacle, and exhibited a Circensian game, indiscriminately mingling with the common people in the habit of a charioteer, or else standing in his chariot; whence a feeling of compassion arose toward the sufferers, though guilty and deserving to be made examples of by capital punishment, because they seemed not to be cut off for the public good, but victims to the ferocity of one man." Another Roman historian, Suetonius (Nero, xvi.), says of him: "He likewise inflicted punishments on the Christians, a sort of people who hold a new and impious superstition" (Forbes's Footsteps of St. Paul, p. 60) Nero was the emperor before whom Paul was brought on his first imprisonment at Rome, and the apostle is supposed to have suffered martyrdom during this persecution. He is repeatedly alluded to in Scripture Ac 25:11 Php 1:12,13 4:22 He died A.D. 68




In use among the Hebrews for fishing, hunting, and fowling. The fishing-net was probably constructed after the form of that used by the Egyptians Isa 19:8 There were three kinds of nets.

1. The drag-net or hauling-net (Gr. sagene), of great size, and requiring many men to work it. It was usually let down from the fishing-boat, and then drawn to the shore or into the boat, as circumstances might require Mt 13:47,48

2. The hand-net or casting-net (Gr. amphiblestron), which was thrown from a rock or a boat at any fish that might be seen Mt 4:18 Mr 1:16 It was called by the Latins funda. It was of circular form, "like the top of a tent."

3. The bag-net (Gr. diktyon), used for enclosing fish in deep water Lu 5:4-9


The fowling-nets were

1. the trap, consisting of a net spread over a frame, and supported by a stick in such a way that it fell with the slightest touch Am 3:5 "gin; "Ps 69:22 Job 18:9 Ec 9:12

2. The snare, consisting of a cord to catch birds by the leg Job 18:10 Ps 18:5 116:3 140:5

3. The decoy, a cage filled with birds as decoys Jer 5:26,27 Hunting-nets were much in use among the Hebrews.




Given of God.

1. The son of Zuar, chief of the tribe of Issachar at the Exodus Nu 1:8 2:5

2. One of David's brothers 1Ch 2:14

3. A priest who blew the trumpet before the ark when it was brought up to Jerusalem 1Ch 15:24

4. A Levite 1Ch 24:6

5. A temple porter, of the family of the Korhites 1Ch 26:4

6. One of the "princes" appointed by Jehoshaphat to teach the law through the cities of Judah 2Ch 17:7

7. A chief Levite in the time of Josiah 2Ch 35:9

8. Ezr 10:22

9. Ne 12:21

10. A priest's son who bore a trumpet at the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem Ne 12:36




Given of Jehovah.

1. One of Asaph's sons, appointed by David to minister in the temple 1Ch 25:2,12

2. A Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the law 2Ch 17:8

3. Jer 36:14

4. 2Ki 25:23,25




The name given to the hereditary temple servants in all the post-Exilian books of Scripture. The word means given, i.e., "those set apart", viz., to the menial work of the sanctuary for the Levites. The name occurs seventeen times, and in each case in the Authorized Version incorrectly terminates in "s", "Nethinims; "in the Revised Version, correctly without the "s" Ezr 2:70 7:7,24 8:20 etc. The tradition is that the Gibeonites Jos 9:27 were the original caste, afterwards called Nethinim. Their numbers were added to afterwards from captives taken in battle; and they were formally given by David to the Levites Ezr 8:20 and so were called Nethinim, i.e., the given ones, given to the Levites to be their servants. Only 612 Nethinim returned from Babylon Ezr 2:58 8:20 They were under the control of a chief from among themselves Ezr 2:43 Ne 7:46 No reference to them appears in the New Testament, because it is probable that they became merged in the general body of the Jewish people.




Distillation; dropping, a town in Judah, in the neighbourhood, probably, of Bethlehem Ne 7:26 1Ch 2:54 Two of David's guards were Netophathites 1Ch 27:13,15 It has been identified with the ruins of Metoba, or Um Toba, to the north-east of Bethlehem.




1. Heb. haral, "pricking" or "burning, "Pr 24:30,31 (R.V. marg., "wild vetches"); Job 30:7 Zep 2:9 Many have supposed that some thorny or prickly plant is intended by this word, such as the bramble, the thistle, the wild plum, the cactus or prickly pear, etc.  It may probably be a species of mustard, the Sinapis arvensis, which is a pernicious weed abounding in corn-fields. Tristram thinks that this word "designates the prickly acanthus (Acanthus spinosus), a very common and troublesome weed in the plains of Palestine."

2. Heb. qimmosh, Isa 34:13 Ho 9:6 Pr 24:31 (in both versions, "thorns"). This word has been regarded as denoting thorns, thistles, wild camomile; but probably it is correctly rendered "nettle, "the Urtica pilulifera, "a tall and vigorous plant, often 6 feet high, the sting of which is much more severe and irritating than that of our common nettle."


New Moon Feast of


Special services were appointed for the commencement of a month Nu 28:11-15 10:10




New Testament


Lu 22:20 rather "New Covenant, "in contrast to the old covenant of works, which is superseded. "The covenant of grace is called new; it succeeds to the old broken covenant of works. It is ever fresh, flourishing, and excellent; and under the gospel it is dispensed in a more clear, spiritual, extensive, and powerful manner than of old" (Brown of Haddington). Hence is derived the name given to the latter portion of the Bible.






Victory; pure, Ezr 2:54 Ne 7:56




A town in the "plain" of Judah. It has been identified with Beit Nuzib, about 14 miles south-west of Jerusalem, in the Wady Sur Jos 15:43




Barker, the name of an idol, supposed to be an evil demon of the Zabians. It was set up in Samaria by the Avites 2Ki 17:31 probably in the form of a dog.




Fertile; light soil, a city somewhere "in the wilderness" of Judah Jos 15:62 probably near Engedi.




Conqueror, one of the seven deacons appointed in the apostolic Church Ac 6:1-6 Nothing further is known of him.




The people is victor, a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin. He is first noticed as visiting Jesus by night Joh 3:1-21 for the purpose of learning more of his doctrines, which our Lord then unfolded to him, giving prominence to the necessity of being "born again." He is next met with in the Sanhedrin Joh 7:50-52 where he protested against the course they were taking in plotting against Christ. Once more he is mentioned as taking part in the preparation for the anointing and burial of the body of Christ Joh 19:39 We hear nothing more of him. There can be little doubt that he became a true disciple.




The church at Ephesus Re 2:6 is commended for hating the "deeds" of the Nicolaitanes, and the church of Pergamos is blamed for having them who hold their "doctrines" Re 2:15. They were seemingly a class of professing Christians, who sought to introduce into the church a false freedom or licentiousness, thus abusing Paul's doctrine of grace (comp.) 2Pe 2:15,16,19 and were probably identical with those who held the doctrine of Baalam (q.v.), Re 2:14




The victory of the people, a proselyte of Antioch, one of the seven deacons Ac 6:5




City of victory, where Paul intended to winter Ti 3:12 There were several cities of this name. The one here referred to was most probably that in Epirus, which was built by Augustus Caesar to commemorate his victory at the battle of Actium (B.C. 31) It is the modern Paleoprevesa, i.e., "Old Prevesa." The subscription to the epistle to Titus calls it "Nicopolis of Macedonia", i.e., of Thrace. This is, however, probably incorrect.




Black, a surname of Simeon Ac 13:1 He was probably so called from his dark complexion.




(Heb. tahmas) occurs only in the list of unclean birds Le 11:16 De 14:15 This was supposed to be the night-jar (Caprimulgus), allied to the swifts. The Hebrew word is derived from a root meaning "to scratch or tear the face, "and may be best rendered, in accordance with the ancient versions, "an owl" (Strix flammea). The Revised Version renders "night-hawk."




Dark; blue, not found in Scripture, but frequently referred to in the Old Testament under the name of Sihor, i.e., "the black stream" Isa 23:3 Jer 2:18 or simply "the river" Ge 41:1 Ex 1:22 etc. and the "flood of Egypt" Am 8:8 It consists of two rivers, the White Nile, which takes its rise in the Victoria Nyanza, and the Blue Nile, which rises in the Abyssinian Mountains. These unite at the town of Khartoum, whence it pursues its course for 1,800 miles, and falls into the Mediterranean through its two branches, into which it is divided a few miles north of Cairo, the Rosetta and the Damietta branch.






Pure, a city on the east of Jordan Nu 32:3 probably the same as Beth-nimrah Jos 13:27 It has been identified with the Nahr Nimrin, at one of the fords of Jordan, not far from Jericho.


Nimrim, Waters of


The stream of the leopards, a stream in Moab Isa 15:6 Jer 48:34 probably the modern Wady en-Nemeirah, a rich, verdant spot at the south-eastern end of the Dead Sea.




Firm, a descendant of Cush, the son of Ham. He was the first who claimed to be a "mighty one in the earth." Babel was the beginning of his kingdom, which he gradually enlarged Ge 10:8-10 The "land of Nimrod" Mic 5:6 is a designation of Assyria or of Shinar, which is a part of it.




Saved. Jehu was "the son of Jehoshaphat, the son of Nimshi" 2Ki 9:2 comp. 1Ki 19:16




First mentioned in Ge 10:11 which is rendered in the Revised Version, "He [i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh." It is not again noticed till the days of Jonah, when it is described Jon 3:3 4:11 as a great and populous city, the flourishing capital of the Assyrian empire 2Ki 19:36 Isa 37:37 The book of the prophet Nahum is almost exclusively taken up with prophetic denunciations against this city. Its ruin and utter desolation are foretold Na 1:14 3:19 etc. Zephaniah also Zep 2:13-15 predicts its destruction along with the fall of the empire of which it was the capital. From this time there is no mention of it in Scripture till it is named in gospel history Mt 12:41 Lu 11:32 This "exceeding great city" lay on the eastern or left bank of the river Tigris, along which it stretched for some 30 miles, having an average breadth of 10 miles or more from the river back toward the eastern hills. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins. Occupying a central position on the great highway between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, wealth flowed into it from many sources, so that it became the greatest of all ancient cities. About B.C. 633 the Assyrian empire began to show signs of weakness, and Nineveh was attacked by the Medes, who subsequently, about B.C. 625 being joined by the Babylonians and Susianians, again attacked it, when it fell, and was razed to the ground. The Assyrian empire then came to an end, the Medes and Babylonians dividing its provinces between them. "After having ruled for more than six hundred years with hideous tyranny and violence, from the Caucasus and the Caspian to the Persian Gulf, and from beyond the Tigris to Asia Minor and Egypt, it vanished like a dream" Na 2:6-11 Its end was strange, sudden, tragic. It was God's doing, his judgement on Assyria's pride Isa 10:5-19 Forty years ago our knowledge of the great Assyrian empire and of its magnificent capital was almost wholly a blank. Vague memories had indeed survived of its power and greatness, but very little was definitely known about it.  Other cities which had perished, as Palmyra, Persepolis, and Thebes, had left ruins to mark their sites and tell of their former greatness; but of this city, imperial Nineveh, not a single vestige seemed to remain, and the very place on which it had stood was only matter of conjecture. In fulfilment of prophecy, God made "an utter end of the place." It became a "desolation." In the days of the Greek historian Herodotus, B.C. 400 it had become a thing of the past; and when Xenophon the historian passed the place in the "Retreat of the Ten Thousand, "the very memory of its name had been lost. It was buried out of sight, and no one knew its grave. It is never again to rise from its ruins. At length, after being lost for more than two thousand years, the city was disentombed. A little more than forty years ago the French consul at Mosul began to search the vast mounds that lay along the opposite bank of the river. The Arabs whom he employed in these excavations, to their great surprise, came upon the ruins of a building at the mound of Khorsabad, which, on further exploration, turned out to be the royal palace of Sargon, one of the Assyrian kings. They found their way into its extensive courts and chambers, and brought forth form its hidded depths many wonderful sculptures and other relics of those ancient times. The work of exploration has been carried on almost continuously by M. Botta, Sir Henry Layard, George Smith, and others, in the mounds of Nebi-Yunus, Nimrud, Koyunjik, and Khorsabad, and a vast treasury of specimens of old Assyrian art has been exhumed. Palace after palace has been discovered, with their decorations and their sculptured slabs, revealing the life and manners of this ancient people, their arts of war and peace, the forms of their religion, the style of their architecture, and the magnificence of their monarchs. The streets of the city have been explored, the inscriptions on the bricks and tablets and sculptured figures have been read, and now the secrets of their history have been brought to light. One of the most remarkable of recent discoveries is that of the library of King Assur-bani-pal, or, as the Greek historians call him, Sardanapalos, the grandson of Sennacherib (q.v.).

See ASNAPPER This library consists of about ten thousand flat bricks or tablets, all written over with Assyrian characters. They contain a record of the history, the laws, and the religion of Assyria, of the greatest value. These strange clay leaves found in the royal library form the most valuable of all the treasuries of the literature of the old world. The library contains also old Accadian documents, which are the oldest extant documents in the world, dating as far back as probably about the time of Abraham.

See SARGON "The Assyrian royalty is, perhaps, the most luxurious of our century [reign of Assur-bani-pa]...Its victories and conquests, uninterrupted for one hundred years, have enriched it with the spoil of twenty peoples. Sargon has taken what remained to the Hittites; Sennacherib overcame Chaldea, and the treasures of Babylon were transferred to his coffers; Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal himself have pillaged Egypt and her great cities, Sais, Memphis, and Thebes of the hundred gates...Now foreign merchants flock into Nineveh, bringing with them the most valuable productions from all countries, gold and perfume from South Arabia and the Chaldean Sea, Egyptian linen and glass-work, carved enamels, goldsmiths' work, tin, silver, Phoenician purple; cedar wood from Lebanon, unassailable by worms; furs and iron from Asia Minor and Armenia" (Ancient Egypt and Assyria, by G. Maspero, page 271 The bas-reliefs, alabaster slabs, and sculptured monuments found in these recovered palaces serve in a remarkable manner to confirm the Old Testament history of the kings of Israel. The appearance of the ruins shows that the destruction of the city was due not only to the assailing foe but also to the flood and the fire, thus confirming the ancient prophecies concerning it.  "The recent excavations, "says Rawlinson, "have shown that fire was a great instrument in the destruction of the Nineveh palaces. Calcined alabaster, charred wood, and charcoal, colossal statues split through with heat, are met with in parts of the Nineveh mounds, and attest the veracity of prophecy." Nineveh in its glory was Jon 3:4 an "exceeding great city of three days' journey", i.e., probably in circuit. This would give a circumference of about 60 miles. At the four corners of an irregular quadrangle are the ruins of Kouyunjik, Nimrud, Karamless and Khorsabad. These four great masses of ruins, with the whole area included within the parallelogram they form by lines drawn from the one to the other, are generally regarded as composing the whole ruins of Nineveh.




Month of Flowers, Ne 2:1 the first month of the Jewish sacred year. Assyrian nisannu, "beginning."






Probably connected with the Hebrew word _nesher_, an eagle. An Assyrian god, supposed to be that represented with the head of an eagle. Sennacherib was killed in the temple of this idol 2Ki 19:37 Isa 37:38




Pr 25:20 R.V. marg., "soda", properly "natron, "a substance so called because, rising from the bottom of the Lake Natron in Egypt, it becomes dry and hard in the sun, and is the soda which effervesces when vinegar is poured on it. It is a carbonate of soda, not saltpetre, which the word generally denotes Jer 2:22 R.V. "lye".




Or No-A'mon, the home of Amon, the name of Thebes, the ancient capital of what is called the Middle Empire, in Upper or Southern Egypt. "The multitude of No" Jer 46:25 is more correctly rendered, as in the Revised Version, "Amon of No", i.e., No, where Jupiter Amon had his temple. In Eze 30:14,16 it is simply called "No; "but in Eze 30:15 the name has the Hebrew Hamon prefixed to it, "Hamon No." This prefix is probably the name simply of the god usually styled Amon or Ammon.  In Na 3:8 the "populous No" of the Authorized Version is in the Revised Version correctly rendered "No-Amon." It was the Diospolis or Thebes of the Greeks, celebrated for its hundred gates and its vast population. It stood on both sides of the Nile, and is by some supposed to have included Karnak and Luxor. In grandeur and extent it can only be compared to Nineveh. It is mentioned only in the prophecies referred to, which point to its total destruction. It was first taken by the Assyrians in the time of Sargon Isa 20:1ff. It was afterwards "delivered into the hand" of Nebuchadnezzar and Assurbani-pal Jer 46:25,26 Cambyses, king of the Persians (B.C. 525) further laid it waste by fire. Its ruin was completed (B.C.  81) by Ptolemy Lathyrus. The ruins of this city are still among the most notable in the valley of the Nile. They have formed a great storehouse of interesting historic remains for more than two thousand years. "As I wandered day after day with ever-growing amazement amongst these relics of ancient magnificence, I felt that if all the ruins in Europe, classical, Celtic, and medieval, were brought together into one centre, they would fall far short both in extent and grandeur of those of this single Egyptian city." Manning, The Land of the Pharaohs.




Meeting with the Lord.

1. A Levite who returned from Babylon Ezr 8:33

2. A false prophetess who assisted Tobiah and Sanballat against the Jews Ne 6:14 Being bribed by them, she tried to stir up discontent among the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and so to embarrass Nehemiah in his great work of rebuilding the ruined walls of the city.




1. Rest, (Heb. Noah) the grandson of Methuselah Ge 5:25-29 who was for two hundred and fifty years contemporary with Adam, and the son of Lamech, who was about fifty years old at the time of Adam's death.  This patriarch is rightly regarded as the connecting link between the old and the new world. He is the second great progenitor of the human family. The words of his father Lamech at his birth Ge 5:29 have been regarded as in a sense prophetical, designating Noah as a type of Him who is the true "rest and comfort" of men under the burden of life Mt 11:28 He lived five hundred years, and then there were born unto him three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth Ge 5:32 He was a "just man and perfect in his generation, "and "walked with God" (comp.) Eze 14:14,20 But now the descendants of Cain and of Seth began to intermarry, and then there sprang up a race distinguished for their ungodliness. Men became more and more corrupt, and God determined to sweep the earth of its wicked population Ge 6:7 But with Noah God entered into a covenant, with a promise of deliverance from the threatened deluge Ge 6:18. He was accordingly commanded to build an ark Ge 6:14-16 for the saving of himself and his house. An interval of one hundred and twenty years elapsed while the ark was being built Ge 6:3 during which Noah bore constant testimony against the unbelief and wickedness of that generation 1Pe 3:18-20 2Pe 2:5 When the ark of "gopher-wood" (mentioned only here) was at length completed according to the command of the Lord, the living creatures that were to be preserved entered into it; and then Noah and his wife and sons and daughters-in-law entered it, and the "Lord shut him in" Ge 7:16 The judgment-threatened now fell on the guilty world, "the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished" 2Pe 3:6 The ark floated on the waters for one hundred and fifty days, and then rested on the mountains of Ararat Ge 8:3,4 but not for a considerable time after this was divine permission given him to leave the ark, so that he and his family were a whole year shut up within it Ge 7:11 8:13-14 On leaving the ark Noah's first act was to erect an altar, the first of which there is any mention, and offer the sacrifices of adoring thanks and praise to God, who entered into a covenant with him, the first covenant between God and man, granting him possession of the earth by a new and special charter, which remains in force to the present time Ge 8:21-22 9:1-17 As a sign and witness of this covenant, the rainbow was adopted and set apart by God, as a sure pledge that never again would the earth be destroyed by a flood. But, alas! Noah after this fell into grievous sin Ge 9:21 and the conduct of Ham on this sad occasion led to the memorable prediction regarding his three sons and their descendants. Noah "lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years, and he died" Ge 9:29 See DELUGE

2. Noah, motion, (Heb. No'ah) one of the five daughters of Zelophehad Nu 26:33 27:1 36:11 Jos 17:3




High place, a city of the priests, first mentioned in the history of David's wanderings 1Sa 21:1 Here the tabernacle was then standing, and here Ahimelech the priest resided.

See AHIMELECH From Isa 10:28-32 it seems to have been near Jerusalem. It has been identified by some with el-Isawiyeh, one mile and a half to the north-east of Jerusalem. But according to Isa 10:28-32 it was on the south of Geba, on the road to Jerusalem, and within sight of the city. This identification does not meet these conditions, and hence others (as Dean Stanley) think that it was the northern summit of Mount Olivet, the place where David "worshipped God" when fleeing from Absalom 2Sa 15:32 or more probably (Conder) that it was the same as Mizpeh (q.v.), Jud 20:1 Jos 18:26 1Sa 7:16 at Nebi Samwil, about 5 miles north-west of Jerusalem. After being supplied with the sacred loaves of showbread, and girding on the sword of Goliath, which was brought forth from behind the ephod, David fled from Nob and sought refuge at the court of Achish, the king of Gath, where he was cast into prison. (Comp. titles of Ps 34:1 56:1)





1. Nu 32:42

2. The name given to Kenath (q.v.) by Nobah when he conquered it. It was on the east of Gilead Jud 8:11




(Gr. basilikos, i.e., "king's man"), an officer of state Joh 4:49 in the service of Herod Antipas. He is supposed to have been the Chuza, Herod's steward, whose wife was one of those women who "ministered unto the Lord of their substance" Lu 8:3 This officer came to Jesus at Cana and besought him to go down to Capernaum and heal his son, who lay there at the point of death. Our Lord sent him away with the joyful assurance that his son was alive.




Exile; wandering; unrest, a name given to the country to which Cain fled Ge 4:16 It lay on the east of Eden.




Noble, probably a tribe descended from one of the sons of Ishmael, with whom the trans-Jordanic tribes made war 1Ch 5:19




Splendour, one of David's sons, born at Jerusalem 1Ch 3:7




The Hebrew name of an Egyptian city Isa 19:13 Jer 2:16 44:1 46:14,19 Eze 30:13,16 In Ho 9:6 the Hebrew name is Moph, and is translated "Memphis, "which is its Greek and Latin form. It was one of the most ancient and important cities of Egypt, and stood a little to the south of the modern Cairo, on the western bank of the Nile. It was the capital of Lower Egypt. Among the ruins found at this place is a colossal statue of Rameses the Great.






Blast, a city of Moab which was occupied by the Amorites Nu 21:30


North Country


A general name for the countries that lay north of Palestine. Most of the invading armies entered Palestine from the north Isa 41:25 Jer 1:14,15 50:3,9,41 51:48 Eze 26:7





(Heb. tsaphon), a "hidden" or "dark place, "as opposed to the sunny south De 3:27 A Hebrew in speaking of the points of the compass was considered as always having his face to the east, and hence "the left hand" Ge 14:15 Job 23:9 denotes the north. The "kingdoms of the north" are Chaldea, Assyria, Media, etc.




Only mentioned in Isa 3:21 although refered to in Ge 24:47 Pr 11:22 Ho 2:13 They were among the most valued of ancient female ornaments.  They "were made of ivory or metal, and occasionally jewelled. They were more than an inch in diameter, and hung upon the mouth. Eliezer gave one to Rebekah which was of gold and weighed half a shekel...At the present day the women in the country and in the desert wear these ornaments in one of the sides of the nostrils, which droop like the ears in consequence."


Numbering of the people


Besides the numbering of the tribes mentioned in the history of the wanderings in the wilderness, we have an account of a general census of the whole nation from Dan to Beersheba, which David gave directions to Joab to make 1Ch 21:1 Joab very reluctantly began to carry out the king's command. This act of David in ordering a numbering of the people arose from pride and a self-glorifying spirit. It indicated a reliance on his part on an arm of flesh, an estimating of his power not by the divine favour but by the material resources of his kingdom. He thought of military achievement and of conquest, and forgot that he was God's vicegerent. In all this he sinned against God. While Joab was engaged in the census, David's heart smote him, and he became deeply conscious of his fault; and in profound humiliation he confessed, "I have sinned greatly in what I have done." The prophet Gad was sent to him to put before him three dreadful alternatives 2Sa 24:13 for "seven years" in this verse, the LXX. and 1Ch 21:12 have "three years"), three of Jehovah's four sore judgments Eze 14:21 Two of these David had already experienced. He had fled for some months before Absalom, and had suffered three years' famine on account of the slaughter of the Gibeonites. In his "strait" David said, "Let me fall into the hands of the Lord." A pestilence broke out among the people, and in three days swept away 70,000 At David's intercession the plague was stayed, and at the threshing-floor of Araunah (q.v.), where the destroying angel was arrested in his progress, David erected an altar, and there offered up sacrifies to God 2Ch 3:1 The census, so far as completed, showed that there were at least 1,300,000 fighting men in the kingdom, indicating at that time a population of about six or seven millions in all.




Numbers, Book of


The fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew be-midbar, i.e., "in the wilderness." In the LXX. version it is called "Numbers, "and this name is now the usual title of the book. It is so called because it contains a record of the numbering of the people in the wilderness of Sinai Nu 1:1-4:49  and of their numbering afterwards on the plain of Moab Nu 26:1-2. This book is of special historical interest as furnishing us with details as to the route of the Israelites in the wilderness and their principal encampments. It may be divided into three parts:


1. The numbering of the people at Sinai, and preparations for their resuming their march Nu 1:1-10:10. The sixth chapter gives an account of the vow of a Nazarite.

2. An account of the journey from Sinai to Moab, the sending out of the spies and the report they brought back, and the murmurings (eight times) of the people at the hardships by the way Nu 10:11-21:20.

3. The transactions in the plain of Moab before crossing the Jordan Nu 21:21-36:13 The period comprehended in the history extends from the second month of the second year after the Exodus to the beginning of the eleventh month of the fortieth year, in all about thirty-eight years and ten months; a dreary period of wanderings, during which that disobedient generation all died in the wilderness. They were fewer in number at the end of their wanderings than when they left the land of Egypt. We see in this history, on the one hand, the unceasing care of the Almighty over his chosen people during their wanderings; and, on the other hand, the murmurings and rebellions by which they offended their heavenly Protector, drew down repeated marks of his displeasure, and provoked him to say that they should "not enter into his rest" because of their unbelief Heb 3:19 This, like the other books of the Pentateuch, bears evidence of having been written by Moses. The expression "the book of the wars of the Lord, "occurring in Nu 21:14 has given rise to much discussion. But, after all, "what this book was is uncertain, whether some writing of Israel not now extant, or some writing of the Amorites which contained songs and triumphs of their king Sihon's victories, out of which Moses may cite this testimony, as Paul sometimes does out of heathen poets" Ac 17:28 Tit 1:12




Beyond the fact that he was the father of Joshua nothing more is known of him Ex 33:11




Were among the presents Jacob sent into Egypt for the purpose of conciliating Joseph Ge 43:11 This was the fruit of the pistachio tree, which resembles the sumac. It is of the size of an olive. In So 6:11 a different Hebrew word('egoz), which means "walnuts, "is used.




Nymph, saluted by Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians as a member of the church of Laodicea Col 4:15